- 2018年04月27日15:22 来源：互联网
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Paragraph 9: The relative amount of these two kinds of water varies greatly from one kind of rock or sediment to another, even though their porosities may be the same. What happens depends on pore size.If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops too heavy for surface tension to hold, and it will drain away; but if the pores are small enough, the water in them will exist as thin films, too light to overcome the force of surface tension holding them in place; then the water will be firmly held.
Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Only the last of these(指代前文running water) was suited at all to the continuous operating of machines, and although waterpower abounded in Lancashire and Scotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills, it had one great disadvantage: streams flowed where nature intended them to, and water-driven factories had to be located on their banks whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons.
○Running water was the best power source for factories since it could keep machines operating continuously, but since it was abundant only in Lancashire and Scotland, most mills and factories that were located elsewhere could not be water driven.
○The disadvantage of using waterpower is that streams do not necessarily flow in places that are the most suitable for factories, which explains why so many water-powered grain and textile mills were located in undesirable places.
○Since machines could be operated continuously only where running water was abundant, grain and textile mills, as well as other factories, tended to be located only in Lancashire and Scotland.
○Running water was the only source of power that was suitable for the continuous operation of machines, but to make use of it, factories had to be located where the water was, regardless of whether such locations made sense otherwise.
Only the last of these(指代前文running water) was suited at all to the continuous operating of machines, and although waterpower abounded in Lancashire and Scotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills,it had one great disadvantage: streams flowed where nature intended them to, and water-driven factories had to be located on their banks whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons.
A选项错误：第一部分“Running water was the best power source for factories”的意思，原文三部分都未曾提及。原句橙色部分只说“只有水完全适合机械的持续运转”，但是否只有水适合、或者水最适合factories?factories和machine的持续运作并不等价。其次，原文的蓝色部分也并没有提到A选项后半部分所述的“流水仅仅在Lancashire和Scotland是很丰富的”。
B选项错误：第二部分“so many water-powered grain and textile mills were located in undesirable places”在原句中并未提到，原句蓝色部分只说“L和S地区的水力能够给grain mills和textile mills提供动力”。
For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them; nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.
Myths sometimes survived in a society’s tradition because of their artistic qualities even after they were no longer deemed religiously beneficial.
正确选项的因果关系在原文并未直接给出，但是记住，逻辑关系并不一定是通过连接词来表达的，比如result from就可以表示因果关系，经过改写完全可以变成“because … , …”的句子结构。再者，往往很多逻辑关系在初步理解句意的时候是无法非常直观的判断出来。
The growth of the electric-power industry was the result of a remarkable series of scientific discoveries and development in electrotechnology during the nineteenth century, but significant changes in what we might now call hydro (water) technology also played their part.
Advances in electrotechnology in the nineteenth century and changes in hydro technology were responsible for the growth of the electric-power industry.
In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them—even while building materials have changed dramatically.
“据说”句子的主语和谓语在答案中是需要有的，不过答案偏偏是：Unlike building materials, the methods of support used in architecture have not changed over time because they are based on physical laws.
比如刚才那道running water的题，原句上来就是only the last of these。要想看懂句意，必然结合前文确定指代内容，这样才能选择答案。
In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive.
Arthur Einarsen found that deforested feeding grounds provided deer with more and better food.
很多同学对这个题目中open areas开阔地区和deforested grounds的改写非常费解。其实这个句子的前文讲到了第三个使得鹿群数量增长的原因，这个原因就是森林都被砍伐了。然后这句话说道，open areas的食物不仅多、而且有营养，就是黑尾鹿增加的原因。所以前文提到的森林都被砍伐了的地区deforested grounds就是句子里说到的open areas。极个别的题目，还真没法只看这一句就100%理解并得到答案。
Over long periods of time, substances whose physical and chemical properties change with the ambient climate at the time can be deposited in a systematic way to provide a continuous record of changes in those properties overtime, sometimes for hundreds or thousands of years.
Changes in systematically deposited substances that are affected by climate can indicate climate variations over time.
○ Because physical and chemical properties of substances are unchanging, they are useful records of climate fluctuations over time.
○ For hundreds or thousands of years, people have been observing changes in the chemical and physical properties of substances in order to infer climate change.
○ Because it takes long periods of time for the climate to change, systematic changes in the properties of substances are difficult to observe.
Continued sedimentation—the process of deposits’ settling on the sea bottom—buries the organic matter and subjects it to higher temperatures and pressures, which convert the organic matter to oil and gas.
○Increase pressure and heat from the weight of the sediment turn the organic remains into petroleum.
○Deposits of sediments on top of organic matter increase the temperature of and pressure on the matter.