【小站原创】官方真题Official48托福阅读文本及答案解析（Chinese Population Growth）（原TPO）
- 2016年06月27日10:39 来源：小站教育作者：小站托福编辑
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1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. 【句子简化题】
A. Commerce, industrialization, and development are common features of the Western experience.
B. Trade, industrialization, and development accelerated social change in Western societies.
C. Trade and industrialization brought about development in Western societies.
D. In Western societies, social change provided the conditions for development in a number of areas.
解析：划线句子意为西方社会商业让工业化开始，然后带来社会各个方面的发展，对应选项C中：Trade and industrialization brought about development in Western societies。
2. The word “attributed” in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
Paragraph 1 and Paragraph 2
Increases in population have usually been accompanied (indeed facilitated) by an increase in trade. In the Western experience, commerce provided the conditions that allowed industrialization to get started, which in turn led to growth in science, technology, industry, transport, communications, social change, and the like that we group under the broad term of “development.” However, the massive increase in population that in Europe was at first attributed to industrialization starting in the eighteenth century occurred also and at the same period in China, even though there was no comparable industrialization.
It is estimated that the Chinese population by 1600 was close to 150 million. The transition between the Ming and Qing dynasties (the seventeenth century) may have seen a decline, but from 1741 to 1851 the annual figures rose steadily and spectacularly, perhaps beginning with 143 million and ending with 432 million. If we accept these totals, we are confronted with a situation in which the Chinese population doubled in the 50 years from 1790 to 1840. If, with greater caution, we assume lower totals in the early eighteenth century and only 400 million in 1850, we still face a startling fact: something like a doubling of the vast Chinese population in the century before Western contact, foreign trade, and industrialization could have had much effect.
3. According to paragraphs 1 and 2, which of the following is true of Chinese population growth between 1741and 1851? 【事实信息题】
A. It coincided with the beginning of industrialization in China.
B. It prompted speculation about the actual number of people living in China in previous centuries.
C. It continued the steady growth in population of previous centuries.
D. It occurred in the absence of certain conditions generally associated with population growth.
解析：原文… increase in population … Europe … industrialization … and … China, … no … industrialization，以及原文… a doubling …Chinese population … before Western contact, foreign trade, and industrialization could have had much effect，说明中国人口增长与西方接触外贸以及工业化这些普遍因素无关，对应选项D中：It occurred in the absence of certain conditions generally associated with population growth。