- 2017年11月10日18:18 来源：小站整理
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According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group in the United States. In the family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases, such as friendship groups,one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally through election or recruitment.
Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of "natural leaders."It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group.
Furthermore, although it is commonly supposed that social groups have a single leader,research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to "get things done." Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-being of a social group's members. Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Group members expect expressive leaders to maintain stable relationships within the group and provide support to individual members.
Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group members.They give orders and may discipline group members who inhibit attainment of the group's goals.Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious moment with humor, and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group.
As the differences in these two roles suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members; instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a more distant respect.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The problems faced by leaders
(B) How leadership differs in small and large groups
(C) How social groups determine who will lead them
(D) The role of leaders in social groups
2. The passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leaders EXCEPT
(B) formal election process
(C) specific leadership training
(D) traditional cultural patterns
3. In mentioning "natural leaders" in line 9, the author is making the point that
(A) few people qualify as "natural leaders"
(B) there is no proof that "natural leaders" exist
(C) "natural leaders' are easily accepted by the members of a social group
(D) "natural leaders" share a similar set of characteristics
4. Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?
(A) A person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.
(B) Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.
(C)A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.
(D) Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
5. The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on
(A) ensuring harmonious relationships
(B) sharing responsibility with group members
(C) identifying new leaders
(D) achieving a goal
6. The word "collective" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
7. The word "them" in line 19 refers to
(A) expressive leaders
(B) goals of the group
(C) group members
(D) tension and conflict
8. A "secondary relationship" mentioned in line 22 between a leader and the members of a group
could best be characterized as
9. The word "resolve" in line 27 is closest in meaning to
(A) avoid repeating
(B) talk about
(C) avoid thinking about
(D) find a solution for
10. Paragraphs 3 and 4 organize the discussion of leadership primarily in term of
(A) examples that illustrate a problem
(B) cause and effect analysis
(C) narration of events
(D) comparison and contrast