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TPO48托福听力Lecture4原文+真题解析

2017年12月13日19:46 来源:小站整理
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摘要:无论是新加入托福考试团队的筒子还是考过多次的托福考生,TPO托福模考软件相信大家都不会陌生。那么大家平时是如何进行TPO的练习的呢?小编认为对于托福听力TPO里的真题可以帮助大家找到做题规律并且让你找到方法。这里小编就为大家整理了TPO48托福听力直题解析及听力原文分享给大家。

托福听力考试中包含2个Conversation和4个Lecture。对于很多考生来说,托福听力考试可能是整个托福考试当中比较难的一个考试部分。它们可能因为听不懂或者题型不够了解等等原因,使得成绩得不到提升。这里小编为大家整理的TPO托福听力原文以及真题解析,希望可以帮助到大家。

TPO48托福听力Lecture4练习>>>点击进入

TPO48托福听力Lecture4原文+真题解析图1

TPO48托福全套题目、解析、模板及范文汇总:http://toefl.zhan.com/tpo64813.html

托福TPO48听力lecture4听力原文:

Listen to part of a lecture in an American history class.

Professor: We’ve been talking about the transformation, the industrialization of the United States economy in the 19th century. As the country shifted from an agricultural to an industrial base, political power shifted, too. Businesses became… A lot of power went from government into the hands of business leaders.

So, why did this happen? How did an elite group—a few business giants—how did they end up dominating, controlling a number of important national industries in the last quarter of the 19th century? How did they get to be so dominant? How did they figure out, how did they take advantage of the new industrialization of American society?

Well, consider the example of Andrew Carnegie and the steel industry. We’ve already discussed the development of a national network, a national system of railroads. Well, this growth created a tremendous demand for steel, a national railroad system needs a lot of railroad tracks, right? And Carnegie seized the opportunity. He built the world’s most modern steel mill. And he came up with a system of business organization called vertical integration. Vertical integration just means that all, every single activity of a particular industry’s processing, is performed by a single company. In the case of the steel industry, this means the mining of the iron ore, the transportation used to get ore from the mine to the mill, turning the ore into steel, the manufacturing process and sales. Carnegie controlled all of these. He practiced vertical integration on such a large scale that he practically owned the whole steel industry. This, of course, gave him a lot of political clout. Just a quick sketch, but you get the idea, right?

Here’s another example: John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller owned an oil refinery. But he wanted to expand his business. Since there was a lot of competition in the industry, he thought the smart way to go about it would be to buy his competitor’s businesses. But at the time, it was illegal for one corporation to control another. So, what he did was he created an organizational structure called a trust. A trust is—well, I don’t have to go into that now—what matters is that a trust created a single, central management team and that team directed the activities of what otherwise still appeared to be independent companies. This new legal entity worked so well that at one point, Rockefeller controlled ninety percent of the country’s oil refineries which again, gave him lots of political power.

So you’ve got two different approaches to expending a business. And both were quite effective. Of course, these weren’t the only two examples. A number of big businesses run by powerful individuals developed across a wide range of industries like railroad, food processing, electricity. But what they all had in common was the government let them operate pretty much how they wanted to. So why did they do that? Why did the government keep such a low profile and allow individuals to gain so much control of the industries?

Well, obviously, they had the wealth and the power to influence political leaders. But also, the truth is that these industry leaders made a significant contribution. Their investments in technologies led to the development of many new production techniques, which strengthened the economy. And many of them gave lots of money to charity. Andrew Carnegie was particularly admired for his generosity. But there was one thing in particular that gave them power and that’s they were beneficiaries, probably the biggest beneficiaries of a theory—a dominant political theory—in the 19th century, something called laissez faire doctrine.

Laissez faire roughly means let it alone. And that pretty much summarized the theory’s philosophy. The idea was that government should leave business alone. Allow it to operate unregulated. Legislatures weren’t supposed to pass a lot of laws or worry about regulating business practices. When people did challenge a company’s business conduct, I mean in court cases, the few laws that did exist were usually interpreted in favor of business interests.

But overtime it started becoming increasingly obvious and troubling to the public that some of these big companies simply had too much control. There were criticisms that owners had too much opportunity to exploit workers--workers and consumers because they could control prices and wages. And small business owners and small farmers couldn’t compete, so there was bad press, bad publicity, enough that the government eventually felt that it had to do something, so it passed two key pieces of legislation. One law was designed to regulate the prices set by the railroads. Another made it illegal for trusts to be used to limit competition. Both were aimed squarely at reducing the exclusive control that existed in some industries.

TPO48托福听力Lecture 4题目+解析

1.What is the lecture mainly about?

A.Ways that new managerial techniques hastened the industrialization of American society in the nineteenth century

B.Ways that the United States government tried to regulate business practices in the nineteenth century

C.Reasons that business leaders gained political power in the late nineteenth-century United States

D.A comparison of the management styles of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller

Q1

正确答案:C

定位原文:

Businesses became… A lot of power went from government into the hands of business leaders.

So, why did this happen? How did an elite group—a few business giants—how did they end up dominating, controlling a number of important national industries in the last quarter of the 19th century? How did they get to be so dominant? How did they figure out, how did they take advantage of the new industrialization of American society?

解析:开篇professor就说政府的权利落入商业领袖手中,然后提出了一系列问题,第一个问题问的就是why,而所有以how开头的问题都是询问原因细节的,在后续的篇幅中举了卡耐基和洛克菲勒的例子来说明,接着总结原因和问题,以及最后提出立法的解决方案。所有lecture都有清晰的文章结构,一定要在做笔记的时候整理出这样的结构。

2.Why does the professor discuss vertical integration?

A.To explain how Andrew Carnegie gained control of the steel industry

B.To describe the most typical organization for businesses in the nineteenth century

C.To explain how John D. Rockefeller organized the oil industry

D.To explain the origins of the business trust

Q2

正确答案:A

定位原文:

And he came up with a system of business organization called vertical integration. Vertical integration … He practiced vertical integration on such a large scale that he practically owned the whole steel industry.

解析:垂直统一管理(vertical integration)按照听力原文中的描述就是一个产业过程的所有单一部分都由一个企业单独完成,按照举例的钢铁行业,就是从开发一直到销售都由卡耐基的钢铁公司完成,他大规模地运用vertical integration,然后慢慢就掌控了整个钢铁工业。

3.In what two ways did business leaders make a positive contribution to the United States in the nineteenth century? Click on 2 answers.

A.They invested in new production technologies.

B.They raised wage levels.

C.They improved safety conditions.

D.They supported charitable causes.

Q3

正确答案:A D

定位原文:

But also, the truth is that these industry leaders made a significant contribution. Their investments in technologies led to the development of many new production techniques, which strengthened the economy. And many of them gave lots of money to charity.

解析:题干中的positive contribution 在听力原文中以 a significant contribution的形式重现,一是这些industry leaders 对于科学技术的投资使得很多新的生产技术得到发展,对应A选项;其次他们对慈善事业也投入了很多钱,对应D选项,cause的名词含义之一有“事业”的含义。

4.According to the professor, what is the main reason that some businesses were able to become powerful during the nineteenth century?

A.The government assisted businesses when they had financial difficulties.

B.Taxation was based upon the profitability of a business.

C.The government did not impose many regulations on businesses.

D.Some government officials once held influential positions in large businesses.

Q4

正确答案: C

定位原文:

But there was one thing in particular that gave them power and that’s they were beneficiaries, probably the biggest beneficiaries of a theory—a dominant political theory—in the 19th century, something called laissez faire doctrine.

Laissez faire roughly means let it alone. And that pretty much summarized the theory’s philosophy. The idea was that government should leave business alone. Allow it to operate unregulated. Legislatures weren’t supposed to pass a lot of laws or worry about regulating business practices.

解析:Laissez faire doctrine的核心内容就是government should leave business alone, allow it to operate unregulated. 这就对应本题目的C选项。

5.Why did the government pass new laws aimed at businesses?

A.To correct mistakes made by the judicial system

B.To respond to complaints from the public

C.To increase employment rates

D.To increase tax revenue from large industries

Q5

正确答案:B

定位原文:

But overtime it started becoming increasingly obvious …owners and small farmers couldn’t compete, so there was bad press, bad publicity, enough that the government eventually felt that it had to do something, so it passed two key pieces of legislation.

解析:之前说了没有立法约束,然后政府又通过建立针对business的新法律,这个题目实际上就在问,针对政府之前对business 完全不控制不规范的行为产生了什么问题。这个问题文中说了好几个方面,首先是对于工人阶级和消费者的剥削和压榨,然后说小企业和农民阶层没办法竞争生存,最后这些企业的名声也不好了,政府才决定立法控制,对应选项的话,只能选择B选项了。

6.What does the professor imply about the term “trust” when she says this:

A.She should not have mentioned the term.

B.It is unnecessary to explain the details of the term.

C.She wants the students to explain the term to her later.

D.She wants to discuss a different term.

Q6

正确答案:B

定位原文:

A trust is—well, I don’t have to go into that now—what matters is that a trust created a single, central management team and that team directed the activities of what otherwise still appeared to be independent companies.

解析:本身professor是想解释Trust(托拉斯)的概念的,然后停住了,说现在没有必要探讨这个概念的必要,what matters is… 也就是说这个Trust到底是什么并不重要,关键在与Trust这个组织产生之后导致的结果和影响,这才是和今天的lecture有关的。对应B选项。

以上就是小编为大家整理的TPO48托福听力真题解析及听力原文,大家在托福听力备考时可以拿来进行参考,希望可以帮助到大家。最后,小编预祝大家托福考试能取得理想的成绩。

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