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【小站原创】TPO50托福听力Lecture3文本+题目+答案解析

2018年04月11日13:49 来源:小站整理
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【小站原创】TPO50托福听力Lecture3文本+题目+答案解析图1

TPO50托福听力Lecture3原文文本

Listen to part of a lecture in the United States’ Literature class. The professor is discussing Realism.

标题:American Realism

Professor:

Ok, everyone. In our last class, we finished up Romanticism, right? So now let’s look at something completely different. Realism as a literary technic was most popular in U.S. literature from around 1860 till 1890. So it started pretty much around the time of the civil war. And I think you’ll see right away how it is different from Romanticism or any other kind of literature. There is a very specific point that makes it unique. And that is that it shows people as they are and get you to look at them and also you know the things that need to be changed in the society. And it doesn’t without being sentimental, not in that sort of over-emotional way, the way that romantic literature can. Realism tells it like it is.

Let’s look the society as a whole. In the late 1800s, people were interested in the scientific method as well as rational philosophy, which says that people can discover the truth by using reason and factual analysis. So reason and facts, ok. And at the same time that realism was becoming popular. There were a lot of political and socioeconomic changes happening in the country. There was increased literacy, plus the growth of industrialism and urbanization, growth in population from immigration, and a rise in middle class affluence.

All these factors combined with the importance of reason and facts, made/making/mented? readers were interested in really having a good understanding of all these changes, the changes going on in society. A scourer named Amy Chaplin says, and I’m just paraphrasing here, that Realism is a way to understand and deal with social change, which makes a lot of sense I think.

So then, let’s take a closer look at the trips of the trend, and how realist writers did their work. For one thing as we said, they focus on, express reality, and in great detail. They inferred verisimilitude. Shall I write down on board?

Students:

Ahha.

Professor:

Ok. Verisimilitude means basically the same true or real, like say, a photograph rather than a painting in a way. In fact, that’s a good analogy. You see writers try to capture a moment in time and all its basic facts but without exaggeration, just like a camera does.

Anyway, the events, the things that happen in realistic literature are usually pretty much plausible. I mean, you figure that they can probably happen to anyone. And the characters are believable, too. And actually, they are usually even more important than the plot. There’re also……they talked the way the real people talk, authentic speaking styles from different regions, different parts of the country were captured in the text. Is that make sense? Ok.

So, besides verisimilitude, another important characteristic of realism is the narrator’s objectivity. Characters in the events were described without the narrator passing much judgment on them or anything or being too dramatic. Basically, you are reading a story without too much extra comment from the narrator.

Ok, now we have an idea of what realism was. So, who were the players? Well, two important realist novelists were Rebecca Harding Davis and Mark Twain. We’ll talk more about other realists tomorrow. But for today, let’s just start by looking briefly at these two.

Rebecca Harding Davis was an author and journalist who, like other realists, was concerned about all those social changes going on. She wrote mainly about some marginalized groups of the time, like women, native Americans, ah, immigrants. Now her best known book is a volume called The Life in the Iron Mills. It’s really a key text, because it’s one of the original realist works. Her works overall have been pretty much ignored for a long time. But some critics and scourers are starting to revisit them and study them more seriously. Probably more from the historical aspects of the works and……but I think that’s great.

But if we are talking about great literature, literature that’s read and enjoyed today as something more than just a way of looking at that era, the era when that was written. Well, a favorite of mind is Mark Twain. I’m sure you have read and heard of his most famous book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. And Twain’s style, he goes back to xxxxxxxx, very similitude, the realistic way actors acted and talked. You should realize too that this was quite a contrast to earlier writers in the U.S., who try to annulate the British Writers, try to be very elegant, at the expanse of Realism. You know, a lot of critics will tell you that American literature began with that book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

TPO50托福听力Lecture3答案解析

6. 主旨题

答案:A

解析:

此题出处是:

Professor:

Ok, everyone. In our last class, we finished up Romanticism, right? So now let’s look at something completely different. Realism as a literary technic was most popular in U.S. literature from around 1860 till 1890.

本题除了开头老师的介绍以外,还需要结合全文进行判断。整篇讲座都在介绍现实主义文学,先后介绍了现实主义文学产生的社会背景、特征以及两个代表作者。选项A符合原文。选项B说本文主要讲的是现实主义的情节发展和人物描写,选项C说本文在检验现实主义对于社会变革的作用,选项D说本文是讲两个代表人物,都比较片面。选择A。

7. 目的题

答案:B

解析:

此题出处是:

Professor:

Let’s look the society as a whole. In the late 1800s, people were interested in the scientific method as well as rational philosophy, which says that people can discover the truth by using reason and factual analysis. So reason and facts, ok. And at the same time that realism was becoming popular。 There was a lot of political and socioeconomic changes happening in the country. There was increased literacy, plus the growth of industrialism and urbanization, growth in population from immigration, and a rise in middle class affluence.

教授提到科学方法和理性哲学是为了交代现实主义文学产生的社会背景。正是因为人们开始对于世界有了理性的认识方法,人们才开始对于文学也有了如实反映现实的要求,现实主义文学因此诞生。选项B符合原文。选项A说为了举例说明现实主义作家常选择的写作对象,这里并没有举例一说,不选;选项C说是为了解释现实主义是怎么影响到非文学的领域的,不符合原文,不选;选项D说是为了强调现实主义作家所反对的变化,无中生有,也不选。选择B。

8. 细节题

答案:BCE

解析:

此题出处分别是:

Professor:

There was a lot of political and socioeconomic changes happening in the country. There was increased literacy, plus the growth of industrialism and urbanization, growth in population from immigration, and a rise in middle class affluence.

All these factors combined with the importance of reason and facts, made/making/mented? readers were interested in really having a good understanding of all these changes, the changes going on in society.

……..

And the characters are believable, too. And actually, they are usually even more important than the plot. There’re also……they talked the way the real people talk, authentic speaking styles from different regions, different parts of the country were captured in the text. Is that make sense? Ok.

第一段原文里提到的是现实主义关注社会变化,第二段里先后提到了现实主义文学中的人物形象真实丰满,以及人物说话方式贴合现实,而且带有地域特征。三点分别对应选项B、C和E。选项A是多愁善感的情节设置,选项D是使用叙述者来使情节复杂化,都不符合原文。三选BCE。

9. 细节题

答案:C

解析:

此题出处是:

Professor:

Now her best known book is a volume called The Life in the Iron Mills. It’s really a key text, because it’s one of the original realist works.

教授这里明确说明The Life in the Iron Mill是一部关键的作品,是因为它是现实主义文学的开山之作之一。选项C符合教授的意思。选项A说这部作品和作家其他的作品不一样,选项B说它导致了很多社会变革,选项D说它影响了包括马克吐温在内的很多作家,在原文中都没有提到。选择C。

10. 细节题

答案:B

解析:

此题出处是:

Professor:

Her works overall have been pretty much ignored for a long time. But some critics and scourers are starting to revisit them and study them more seriously. Probably more from the historical aspects of the works and……but I think that’s great.

这里教授说,尽管丽贝卡的作品并没有很出名,但是现在也开始有一些批评家从历史的角度来研究。所以批评家应该是认为这部作品虽然文学界不怎么出名,但其中涉及到了当时的历史背景还是值得研究一下的。选项B符合原文意思。选项A说她作品的质量和马克吐温齐平,选项C说它并没有成功地带来改变,选项D说她的风格并没有马克吐温现实,都不符合原文。选择B。

11. 推断题

答案:A

解析:

此题出处是:

Professor:

But if we are talking about great literature, literature that’s read and enjoyed today as something more than just a way of looking at that era, the era when that was written. Well, a favorite of mind is Mark Twain. I’m sure you have read and heard of his most famous book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. And Twain’s style, he goes back to xxxxxxxx, very similitude, the realistic way actors acted and talked. You should realize too that this was quite a contrast to earlier writers in the U.S., who try to ammulate the British Writers, try to be very elegant, at the expanse of Realism. You know, a lot of critics will tell you that American literature began with that book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

教授讲座的最后一段是此题的出题点。这里教授主要讲的是在马克吐温之前,现实主义作者写作的时候还是会去模仿英国文学那种华丽辞藻,但是从马克吐温之后,美国现实主义文学开始摆脱英国文学的影响,有了自己的现实主义风格。选项A符合原文意思。选项B说当时出版的书很少,选项C说浪漫主义和现实主义开始融合,选项D说英国作家比美国作家更多地使用现实主义手法,都不符合原文。选择A。

TPO50托福听力Lecture3翻译

请听一段美国文学课的讲座。教授在讨论现实主义文学。

教授:

好的,大家听我说。我们上节课讲完了浪漫主义文学,对不对?所以现在我们来看看和浪漫主义文学完全不同的文学。现实主义手法是一种很好的文学手法,它在大约1860年到1890年的时候流行于美国。所以它大约是开始于南北战争的时期。我想你们马上就能明白它和浪漫主义、及其他的文学流派有什么不同。现实主义文学有一个特别的特征使其非常独特。那就是它如实地描写人物,让你们了解他们的原貌,而且你们还可以知道社会上需要被改变的事情是什么。它也并不是全然没有情感在内的,只是并不是以一种过度情绪化的方式表达出来,这种过度表达的方式是浪漫主义用的。现实主义就是如实地描述事物。

让我们结合社会全貌一起来看。在十九世纪晚期,人们对于科学方法和理性哲学很感兴趣,这两者告诉人们,可以通过推理和分析事实来发现真相。理性和事实,就是这个。同时现实主义文学就流行了起来。那时候社会上发生了大量的政治和社会经济的变化。识字的人增多,工业化和城镇化进一步发展,人口因为移民而增长,还有中产阶级财富的增加。

这些因素和理性与事实的重要性一起,让读者对于如何真正好好了解社会上的这些变化起了兴趣。一位名为艾米·卓别林的文学爱好者说过,我这里只是转述一下,她说现实主义是一种了解和解决社会变化的方式,这个观点我觉得很有道理。

所以接下来,让我们仔细看看这个文学流派的发展旅程,以及现实主义的作家们是怎么写作的。如我们刚才提到的一点是,他们着重于表达现实,从大量细节上表达现实。这就涉及到了逼真性。需要我把这个词写黑板上吗?

学生:

要的。

教授:

好的。逼真性基本上和真实、真的一个意思,就像是,某种方式上的照片而不是画作。实际上,这是一个很好的比喻。你们知道作者会尽力去及时捕捉一个时刻,以及这个时刻的基本事实,但是又不加以夸大,就像是照相机所做的那样。

无论如何,这一些事件,发生在现实主义文学中的这一些事情通常看起来似乎是真的。我的意思是,你们会发现它们可能发生在任何人身上。那些人物角色也是可信的。实际上,人物角色比故事情节要重要。而且……他们像真实中的人一样说话,用小说中涉及到的不同地区、不同国家的真实的说话方式来讲话。我讲明白了吗?好的。

所以,除了逼真性以外,现实主义的另一个特征是叙述者的客观性。作者在描述故事中的人物角色的时候并没有施加很多的评价,也没有施加别的任何东西,同样也没有故意描述地太过戏剧性。基本上,你们是在阅读一个并没有太多叙述者评论的故事。

好的,现在我们对于现实主义是什么有了一定了解了。那么现实主义的代表人物都有谁呢?嗯,有两个重要的现实主义作家是丽贝卡•哈丁·戴维斯和马克·吐温。我们明天再讲别的浪漫主义作家。但是今天,我们就从简单看看这两位开始。

丽贝卡•哈丁•戴维斯是一位作家和新闻记者,就像其他的现实主义作者一样,她非常关心社会上正在发生的改变。她主要是描写当时边缘群体,就像是女人,美国土著,啊,还有移民的事情。她最出名的书是《铁磨坊的生活》。这部书很关键,因为她是现实主义文学的开山之作之一。她的作品在很长一段时间里被世人所忽略。但是一些批评家和文学爱好者现在开始重新关注她的作品,更加严肃地研究它们。也许是更多地从历史的角度来研究……但是我觉得这样很好。

但是如果我们开始谈论更加伟大的文学作品,现在被人们阅读和喜爱的作品,而不是作为了解现实主义盛行的时代的手段的话。那么,人们最喜欢的作家就是马克·吐温。我确信你们已经读过或者听说过他最出名的书,《哈克贝芬历险记》。马克·吐温的风格是,他回到了xxxxxxx,非常相似,就像是演员真实地行动和谈话一样。你们应该也明白,这种风格和以前的美国文学作者的风格是完全相反的,以前的作者尽力去模仿英国的作者,他们在现实主义的范畴内努力去创作华丽的文字。你们知道,很多批评家会告诉你们美国文学开始于这部作品,《哈克贝芬历险记》。

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