网站导航     在线客服  
全部
2018托福机经
   首页    托福   备考心经   TPO   正文
学生选择在小站备考:30天 463427名,今日申请197人    备考咨询 >>

【小站原创】TPO7托福阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析

2018年01月22日16:56 来源:小站整理
参与(0) 阅读(1255)
摘要:TPO托福模考软件是目前市面上最好用的托福备考资料了,托福考生一般都会拿TPO来进行托福考试的练习。这里小编将为大家整理了完整理了TPO7托福阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析,帮助大家更好的进行托福听力备考

现在大家在进行托福备考时TPO托福模考软件相信是大家用的最多的工具了,对于托福成绩的提升是非常有帮助的。托福听力可以说是整个托福考试当中比较重要的一个部分,如何利用现有资料TPO模考软件来提升大家的托福成绩呢?今天小编在这里整理了TPO7托福阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析来分享给大家,希望对大家托福听力备考有帮助。

TPO7托福模考软件配套资料汇总→→点击进入

【小站原创】TPO7托福阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析图1

TPO7托福阅读Passage3原文文本

Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples

There is evidence of agriculture in Africa prior to 3000 B.C. It may have developed independently, but many scholars believe that the spread of agriculture and iron throughout Africa linked it to the major centers of the Near East and Mediterranean world. The drying up of what is now the Sahara desert had pushed many peoples to the south into sub-Sahara Africa. These peoples settled at first in scattered hunting-and-gathering bands, although in some places near lakes and rivers, people who fished, with a more secure food supply, lived in larger population concentrations. Agriculture seems to have reached these people from the Near East, since the first domesticated crops were millets and sorghums whose origins are not African but west Asian. Once the idea of planting diffused Africans began to develop their own crops, such as certain varieties of rice, and they demonstrated a continued receptiveness to new imports. The proposed areas of the domestication of African crops lie in a band that extends from Ethiopia across southern Sudan to West Africa. Subsequently, other crops, such as bananas, were introduced from Southeast Asia.

Livestock also came from outside Africa. Cattle were introduced from Asia, as probably were domestic sheep and goats. Horses were apparently introduced by the Hyksos invaders of Egypt (1780-1560 B.C.) and then spread across the Sudan to West Africa. Rock paintings in the Sahara indicate that horses and chariots were used to traverse the desert and that by 300-200 B.C., there were trade routes across the Sahara. Horses were adopted by peoples of the West African savannah, and later their powerful cavalry forces allowed them to carve out large empires. Finally, the camel was introduced around the first century A.D. This was an important innovation, because the camel’s abilities to thrive in harsh desert conditions and to carry large loads cheaply made it an effective and efficient means of transportation. The camel transformed the desert from a barrier into a still difficult, but more accessible, route of trade and communication.

Iron came from West Asia, although its routes of diffusion were somewhat different than those of agriculture. Most of Africa presents a curious case in which societies moved directly from a technology of stone to iron without passing through the intermediate stage of copper or bronzemetallurgy, although some early copper-working sites have been found in West Africa. Knowledge of iron making penetrated into the forest and savannahs of West Africa at roughly the same time that iron making was reaching Europe. Evidence of iron making has been found in Nigeria, Ghana, and Mali.

This technological shift cause profound changes in the complexity of African societies. Iron represented power. In West Africa the blacksmith who made tools and weapons had an important place in society, often with special religious powers and functions. Iron hoes, which made the land more productive, and iron weapons, which made the warrior more powerful, had symbolic meaning in a number of West Africa societies. Those who knew the secrets of making iron gained ritual and sometimes political power.

Unlike in the Americas, where metallurgy was a very late and limited development, Africans had iron from a relatively early date, developing ingenious furnaces to produce the high heat needed for production and to control the amount of air that reached the carbon and iron ore necessary for making iron. Much of Africa moved right into the Iron Age, taking the basic technology and adapting it to local conditions and resources.

The diffusion of agriculture and later of iron was accompanied by a great movement of people who may have carried these innovations. These people probably originated in eastern Nigeria. Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara. They spoke a language, proto-Bantu (“Bantu” means “the people”), which is the parent tongue of a language of a large number of Bantu languages still spoken throughout sub-Sahara Africa. Why and how these people spread out into central and southern Africa remains a mystery, but archaeologists believe that their iron weapons allowed them to conquer their hunting-gathering opponents, who still used stone implements. Still, the process is uncertain, and peaceful migration—or simply rapid demographic growth—may have also caused the Bantu explosion.

查看TPO7托福阅读Passage3的题目请进入下一页→→→

更多最新,最in的托福资讯,关注公众号:小站托福(ID:xiaozhantuofu2015)
特别申明:本文内容来源网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵权请立即与我们联系contactus#zhan.com,我们将及时处理。
感觉茅塞顿开?现在就去练练手吧!
大家都在学

看完这篇文章有何感觉?已经有0人表态,0%的人喜欢

相关文章

【小站原创】TPO40-51题目及答案解析全收录(完整版) 【小站原创】TPO40托福阅读文本及答案解析(Ancien... 【小站原创】TPO48托福阅读文本及答案解析(Chines... 【小站原创】TPO41托福阅读文本及答案解析(Navajo... 【小站原创】TPO49托福阅读文本及答案解析(Ancien... 【小站原创】TPO41托福阅读文本及答案解析(Climat... 【小站原创】TPO40托福阅读文本及答案解析(Amphib... 【小站原创】TPO47托福阅读文本及答案解析(Coral ...