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托福综合写作模板汇总之高分句型解析

2018年04月13日15:00 来源:小站整理
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摘要:托福考试中,托福写作部分是其中最重要的部分之一,不仅对托福词汇量和表达能力有所要求,更对逻辑能力有所要求,本文将带来托福综合写作模板汇总之高分句型解析的内容,希望同学能够加以练习,考出理想的托福成绩!

托福考试中,托福写作部分是其中最重要的部分之一,不仅对同学们的托福词汇量和表达能力有所要求,更是对同学们的逻辑能力有所要求,本文小编将为同学们带来托福综合写作模板汇总之高分句型解析的内容,希望同学能够加以练习,考出理想的托福成绩!

托福综合写作模板汇总之高分句型解析图1

有很多同学不太注意综合写作的语言质量,甚至有些老师无意中暗示学生综合写作的语言根本不用管,背个模板就行,导致一些同学生搬硬套模板,结果把综合写作写得牛头不对马嘴,丢掉了不少分数,只是非常悲催的。鉴于此,笔者原创了一些托福综合写作的句型,并将详细讲解这些句型的来历。经过几次认真的练习,你会发现,其实你也可以写出高大上的句子!

托福综合写作对语言质量的要求比独立写作低,甚至可以说低得比较多,这在官方指南中已明显地体现,下面请看第4版(最新版)官方指南综合写作4分的评分标准:

A response at this level is generally good in selecting the important information from the lecture and in coherently and accurately presenting this information inrelation to the relevant information in the reading, but it may have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of some content from the lecture or in connection to points made in the reading. A response is also scored at this level if it has more frequent or noticeable minor language errors, as long as such usage and grammatical structures do not result in anything more than an occasional lapse of clarity or in the connection of ideas.

为什么要看4分的标准而不是5分的呢?因为5分是满分,只要是满分,对各项的要求都非常高。但是,绝大多数同学都不需要考满分,只要你不需要考满分,那最高分就是4分,因为没有介于4分和5分之间的任何小数的分。

以上评分标准告诉我们(请注意划线部分,请特别注意标红部分),只要不影响理解和观点的对比衔接,就算出现较多的或明显的语法小错误,照样可以得4分,而4分则对应于最终换算出来的25分,这对相当一部分同学来说,已经是一个不错的分数了。

正因为如此,有很多同学就不太注意综合写作的语言质量,甚至有些老师无意中暗示学生综合写作的语言根本不用管,背个模板就行,导致一些同学生搬硬套模板,结果把综合写作写得牛头不对马嘴,丢掉了不少分数,只是非常悲催的。

鉴于此,笔者原创了一些托福综合写作的句型,并将详细讲解这些句型的来历。经过几次认真的练习,你会发现,其实你也可以写出高大上的句子!

首先,我们要明白一个道理,托福写作的语言质量其实就是两点:准确与多样。准确,也即遣词造句要符合语法,最好能做到地道;多样,也即不能总用那几个你熟悉的词和句型结构。这不是我发明和杜撰的,这是官方指南的要求(syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity),也是一个常识:学一门语言,把句子说对写对是最基本的要求,如果你的句式多样,证明你懂得多,肚子里有“墨水”,理应获得高分。如果连句子都写不对,或只会用非常有限的几种句型结构,就想通过“万能模板”获得高分——大哥,人家ETS有那么傻吗?

一、如何表示“文章”与“听力”

文章

the reading passage/the reading/the passage(摘自官方指南)

the article/the reading section/the writer/the author

听力

the lecture/the professor(摘自官方指南)

the listening passage/the listening/the listening section/the lecturer/the speaker

二、如何表示“认为、主张、声称”

虽然各个英语单词的地位都是一样的,没有高低贵贱之分,但您总不能一个think杀到底吧!天涯何处无芳草,何必单恋一think呢,请看:

say/believe(稍简单)

claim/state/argue/assert/maintain(语气越来越强硬)

suggest/indicate/imply(有“暗示”的含义,语气稍弱)

take the view that/hold the opinion that/have a notion that(貌似比think颜值稍高*_*)

但一定要注意,表示“文章/听力认为”要用一般现在时,且是第三人称单数(以上表达均可跟that从句),而描述历史事件时态应跟原文保持一致。来看一个例子:

【例】However, the professor says that tea was popular only in southern China, not in the north where Polo stayed.

(来源:《托福高分范文大全》,戴云、刘芸编著,综合写作第06篇范文,第2主体段)

三、如何表示“反驳”

challenge/disprove/refute/contradict

question/cast doubt on(这两个词宾语一般不能是人)

【例】challenge a claim, an assertion, a verdict

(来源:Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary)

【例】These figures disproved Smith's argument.

(来源:Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

【例】an attempt to refute Darwin's theories

(来源:Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

【例】Recent evidence has tended to contradict established theories on this subject.

(来源:Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)

【例】Two months ago, results from a European study questioned whether early treatment with the drug really improved survival.

(来源:Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)

【例】Last night a top criminal psychologist cast doubt on the theory.

(来源:Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 5th Edition)

四、如何组织语言

开头段

句型一:The lecture is a discussion concerning the issue of (主题), which challenges the main idea in the reading passage.

亮点:

1) the issue of…。一定要注意issue of后应该是名词或一个从句,不能是句子

2) concerning是about的升级版,也可以用regarding或with regard to替换concerning

3) which引导的非限制性定语从句

【例】We should raise the issue of discrimination with the council.

(来源:Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

【例】Dillon addressed the issue of child abuse in his speech.

(来源:Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

【例】G-8 leaders call for Syrian peace talks, sidestep issue of whether Assad should go

(来源:Washington Post官网,地址为http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/obama-g-8-leaders-cite-weak-economic-prospects/2013/06/18/755e2064-d813-11e2-a016-92547bf094cc_story.html)

【例】the issue of how to provide adequate child care

(来源:American Heritage Dictionary 4th Edition)

句型二:The writer claims in the reading passage that (文章论点), whereas the professor argues in the lecture that (听力论点). Obviously, they hold differing views on the same topic.

亮点:

1) in the reading passage和in the lecture其实把claims that和argues that分开了,这是一个分裂结构

2) whereas是while的升级版,前面有没有逗号都行

3) differing是different的升级版,还可以说成conflicting/opposing/opposite/contrary/divergent/contradictory

句型三:Despite the point made by the writer that (文章论点), the professor casts doubt on what the writer states by saying that (听力论点).

亮点:

1) despite + 名词 + 过去分词作后置定语

2) 用by saying that引出听力论点

中间段

句型一:In the first place, the author presents a viewpoint that (文章分论点). The listening passage, by contrast, puts forward a divergent opinion that (听力分论点). This is because (解释).

亮点:

1) viewpoint是point的升级版

2) by contrast/in contrast表示对比,且为插入语,还可以用however/nevertheless/nonetheless替换,但意思不同,请认真体会

3) put forward是have的升级版

句型二:Another point of view expressed by the lecturer is that (听力分论点), which contradicts the statement given by the reading that (文章分论点). Then the lecturer supports his point by saying that (解释).

亮点:

1) another其实也可以表示列举的第二项,如果把another换成the first/the second/the final,这个句型就可以用在中间段的不同段落

2) supports his point by saying that避免了老用because表示原因

句型三:Finally, although the reading passage asserts that (文章分论点), contrary to what the reading states, the professor maintains that (听力分论点). In order to prove his theory, the professor says that (解释).

亮点:

1) 用contrary to作提前的状语引出反驳

2) 用in order to作提前的状语表示目的

3) 用prove his theory替换了上面的supports his point

【例】Contrary to what the public was told, weapons were still being exported.

(来源:Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English)

【例】The new claim is directly contrary to what was originally stated.

(来源:Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English)

五、到底写不写结尾段

至于到底写不写结尾段,众说纷纭,笔者认为可写可不写——无论是开头段还是中间段,句式都差不多,如果再加一个结尾段,难免会有重复和冗余之嫌,而且综合写作的官方字数上限是225,写超了到底扣不扣分,谁也不知道。我的理解是,综合写作其实考察了考生提取有效信息的能力,如果写得太长,就有这种能力不强之嫌,所以还是小心为妙。如果小伙伴们看了这篇文章后,“根本停不下来”,忍不住想写,也是可以的,但一定要注意句式和用词的准确与多样。

以上就是小编为同学们整理的托福综合写作模板汇总之高分句型解析的全部内容,同学们需要整理类似模板,从而在托福考试中游刃有余!

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