- 2017年12月12日15:20 来源：小站整理
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Pheromones are substances that serve as chemical signals between members of the same
species. They are secreted to the outside of the body and cause other individuals of the species to
have specific reactions. Pheromones, which are sometimes called "social hormones," affect a
group of individuals somewhat like hormones do an individual animal. Pheromones are the
predominant medium of communication among insects (but rarely the sole method). Some species
have simple pheromone systems and produce only a few pheromones, but others produce many
with various functions. Pheromone systems are the most complex in some of the so-called social
insects, insects that live in organized groups.
Chemical communication differs from that by sight or sound in several ways. Transmission is
relatively slow (the chemical signals are usually airborne), but the signal can be persistent,
depending upon the volatility of the chemical, and is sometimes effective over a very long range.
Localization of the signal is generally poorer than localization of a sound or visual stimulus and is
usually effected by the animal's moving upwind in response to the stimulus. The ability to
modulate a chemical signal is limited, compared with communication by visual or acoustic means,
but some pheromones may convey different meanings and consequently result in different
behavioral or physiological responses, depending on their concentration or when presented in
combination. The modulation of chemical signals occurs via the elaboration of the number of
exocrine glands that produce pheromones. Some species, such as ants, seem to be very articulate
creatures, but their medium of communication is difficult for humans to study and appreciate
because of our own olfactory, insensitivity and the technological difficulties in detecting and
analyzing these pheromones.
Pheromones play numerous roles in the activities of insects. They may act as alarm substances,
play a role in individual and group recognition, serve as attractants between sexes, mediate the
formation of aggregations, identify foraging trails, and be involved in caste determination. For
example, pheromones involved in caste determination include the "queen substance" produced by
queen honey bees. Aphids, which are particularly vulnerable to predators because of their
gregarious habits and sedentary nature, secrete an alarm pheromone when attacked that causes
nearby aphids to respond by moving away.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How insects use pheromones to communicate
(B) How pheromones are produced by insects
(C) Why analyzing insect pheromones is difficult
(D) The different uses of pheromones among various insect species
2. The word "serve" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
3. The purpose of the second mention of "hormones" in line 4 is to point out
(A) chemical signals that are common among insects
(B) specific responses of various species to chemical signals
(C) similarities between two chemical substances
(D) how insects produce different chemical substances
4. The word "sole" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
5. The passage suggests that the speed at which communication through pheromones occurs is
dependent on how quickly they
(A) lose their effectiveness
(B) evaporate in the air
(C) travel through the air
(D) are produced by the body
6. According to the passage , the meaning of a message communicated through a pheromone may
vary when the
(A) chemical structure of the pheromone is changed
(B) pheromone is excreted while other pheromones are also being excreted
(C) exocrine glands do not produce the pheromone
(D) pheromone is released near certain specific organisms
7. The word "detecting" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
8.According to paragraph 2, which of the following has made the study of pheromones difficult?
(A) Pheromones cannot be easily reproduced in chemical laboratories.
(B) Existing technology cannot fully explore the properties of pheromones.
(C) Pheromones are highly volatile.
(D) Pheromone signals are constantly changing.
9. The word "They" in line 24 refers to
10. The word "sedentary" in line 29 is closest in meaning to
11. Pheromone systems are relatively complex in insects that
(A) also communicate using sight and sound
(B) live underground
(C) prey on other insects
(D) live in organized groups