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托福阅读真题练习:美国工业发展的文本+题目+答案

2017年12月12日14:50 来源:小站整理
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摘要:托福阅读真题哪里有?大家平时备考托福阅读考试的时候都用的是哪些真题呢?除了TPO的托福阅读真题以外,大家进行托福阅读的练习大多数可能都是根据老托资料或者是课外资料来练习了。那么到哪里去找到托福阅读真题来进行练习呢?

托福阅读如何进行备考?除了大量的托福词汇储备以外,大家可能最需要的就是托福阅读真题的练习。那么除了TPO你还有哪些托福阅读真题进行练习呢?今天小编就为大家整理了托福阅读真题100篇:美国工业发展的文本、题目以及答案,希望可以帮助到大家。

托福阅读真题练习:美国工业发展的文本+题目+答案图1

托福阅读100篇真题练习汇总:http://toefl.zhan.com/tfziliao63739.html

托福阅读文本:

Industrialization came to the United State after 1790 as North American entrepreneurs

increased productivity by reorganizing work and building factories. These innovations in

manufacturing boosted output and living standards to an unprecedented extent; the average per

capita wealth increased by nearly 1 percent per year — 30 percent over the course of a generation.

Goods that had once been luxury items became part of everyday life.

The impressive gain in output stemmed primarily from the way in which workers made goods,

since the 1790's, North American entrepreneurs — even without technological improvements —

had broadened the scope of the outwork system that made manufacturing more efficient by

distributing materials to a succession of workers who each performed a single step of the

production process. For example, during the 1820's and 1830's the shoe industry greatly expanded

the scale and extend of the outwork system. Tens of thousands of rural women, paid according to

the amount they produced, fabricated the "uppers" of shoes, which were bound to the soles by

wage-earning journeymen shoemakers in dozens of Massachusetts towns, whereas previously

journeymen would have made the entire shoe. This system of production made the employer a

powerful "shoe boss" and eroded workers' control over the pace and conditions of labor. However,

it also dramatically increased the output of shoes while cutting their price.

For tasks that were not suited to the outwork system, entrepreneurs created an even more

important new organization, the modem factory, which used power-driven machines and

assembly-line techniques to turn out large quantities of well-made goods. As early as 1782 the

prolific Delaware inventor Oliver Evans had built a highly automated, laborsaving flour mill

driven by water power. His machinery lifted the grain to the top of the mill, cleaned it as it fell into

containers known as hoppers, ground the grain into flour, and then conveyed the flour back to the

top of the mill to allow it to cool as it descended into barrels. Subsequently, manufacturers made

use of new improved stationary steam engines to power their mills. This new technology enabled

them to build factories in the nation's largest cities, taking advantage of urban concentrations of

inexpensive labor, good transportation networks, and eager customers.

托福阅读题目:

1. What is the passage mainly about?

(A) The difficulties of industrialization in North America

(B) The influence of changes in manufacturing on the growth of urban centers

(C) The rapid speed of industrialization in North America

(D) Improved ways of organizing the manufacturing of goods

2. The word "boosted" in line 3 is closest in meaning to

(A) ensured

(B) raised

(C) arranged

(D) discouraged

3. The word "scope" in line 9 is closest in meaning to

(A) value

(B) popularity

(C) extent

(D) diversity

4. The author mentions the shoe industry in the second paragraph to provide an example of how

(A) entrepreneurs increased output by using an extended outwork system

(B) entrepreneurs used technological improvements to increase output

(C) rural workers responded to "shoe bosses"

(D) changes in the outwork system improved the quality of shoes

5. All of the following are mentioned as effects of changes in the shoe industry during the 1820's

and 1830's EXCEPT

(A) an increase in the worker's dependence on entrepreneurs

(B) an increase in the wages paid to journeymen shoemakers

(C) a decline in the workers ability to control the speed of production

(D) a decrease in the price of shoes

6.All of the following are true of the outwork system EXCEPT

(A) It involved stages of production.

(B) It was more efficient than the systems used before 1790.

(C) It made many employers less powerful than they had been before.

(D) It did not necessarily involve any technological improvements.

7. The word "prolific" in line 23 is closest in meaning to

(A) efficient

(B) productive

(C) self-employed

(D) progressive

8. According to the passage , how did later mills differ from the mills differ from the mill built by

Oliver Evans?

(A) They were located away from large cities.

(B) They used new technology to produce power.

(C) They did not allow flour to cool before it was placed in Barrels.

(D) They combined technology with the outwork system.

9. The word "it" in line 25 refers to

(A) water power

(B) machinery

(C) grain

(D) mill

10. The passage mentions which of the following as a result of improvements in factory

machinery?

(A) It become easier for factory' owners to find workers and customers.

(B) Manufacturers had to employ more highly skilled workers.

(C) The amount of power required for factories operate was reduced.

(D) Factories could operate more than one engine at a time.

11. The word "eager" in line 30 is closest in meaning to

(A) wealthy

(B) knowledgeable

(C) regular

(D) enthusiastic

托福阅读答案:

DBCAB CBBCA D

以上就是小编为大家整理的托福阅读100篇真题练习:美国工业发展的文本、题目以及答案,大家在托福阅读考试进行备考的过程当中也可以拿这些题目来进行练习,相信对于你的托福阅读考试成绩提升会很有帮助。最后,小编预祝大家托福考试能取得理想的成绩。

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