- 2017年12月08日16:02 来源：小站整理
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Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its
evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the 1960's
but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced back to the
work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists, Konrad Lorenz
and Niko Tinbergen.
Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and Tinbergen
observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these is imprinting, the
early following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young will stay close to their
mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place during an early, restricted
time period of development. If the mother goose is not present during this time, but an object
resembling her in important features is, young goslings may imprint on it instead.
Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child development —
the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is biologically prepared
to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably stimulating environment.
Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether complex cognitive and social
behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods. For example, if children are deprived of
adequate food or physical and social stimulation during the early years of life, will their
intelligence be permanently impaired? If language is not mastered during the preschool years, is
the child's capacity to acquire it reduced?
Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby applied
ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and its parents. He
argued that attachment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling, grasping, and crying, are
built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach, care for, and interact with the baby.
By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure that the baby will be fed, protected from
danger, and provided with the stimulation and affection necessary for healthy growth. The
development of attachment in human infants is a lengthy process involving changes in
psychological structures that lead to a deep affectional tie between parent and baby.
1. What was Darwin's contribution to ethology?
(A) Darwin improved on the original principles of ethology.
(B) Darwin was the professor who taught Lorenz and Tinbergen.
(C) Darwin's work provided the basis for ethology.
(D) Darwin was the first person to apply ethological theory to children.
2. The word "diverse" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
3. The word "ensures" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
4. According to the passage , if a mother goose is not present during the time period when
imprinting takes place, which of the following will most likely occur?
(A) The gosling will not imprint on any object.
(B) The gosling may not find a mate when it matures.
(C) The mother will later imprint on the gosling.
(D) The gosling may imprint on another object.
5. The word "it" in line 12 refers to
6. The word "suitably" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
7. The author mentions all of the following as attachment behaviors of human infants EXCEPT
8.According to the passage , attachment behaviors of infants are intended to
(A) get the physical, emotional and social needs of the infant met
(B) allow the infant to become imprinted on objects that resemble the parent
(C) provide the infant with a means of self-stimulation
(D) prepare the infant to cope with separation
9. The phrase "affectional tie" in line 30 is closest in meaning to
(A) cognitive development
(B) emotional attachment
(C) psychological need
(D) behavioral change
10. It can be inferred from the passage that ethological theory assumes that
(A) to learn about human behavior only human subjects should be studied
(B) failure to imprint has no influence on intelligence
(C) the notion of critical periods applies only to animals
(D) there are similarities between animal and human behavior