- 2017年12月06日16:54 来源：小站整理
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In the North American colonies, red ware, a simple pottery fired at low temperatures, and
stone ware, a strong, impervious grey pottery fired at high temperatures, were produced from two
different native clays. These kinds of pottery were produced to supplement imported European
pottery. When the American Revolution (1775-1783) interrupted the flow of the superior European
ware, there was incentive for American potters to replace the imports with comparable domestic
goods. Stoneware, which had been simple, utilitarian kitchenware, grew increasingly ornate
throughout the nineteenth century, and in addition to the earlier scratched and drawn designs,
three-dimensional molded relief decoration became popular. Representational motifs largely
replaced the earlier abstract decorations. Birds and flowers were particularly evident, but other
subjects — lions, flags, and clipper ships — are found. Some figurines, mainly of dogs and lions,
were made in this medium. Sometimes a name, usually that of the potter, was die-stamped onto a
As more and more large kilns were built to create the high-fired stoneware, experiments
revealed that the same clay used to produce low-fired red ware could produce a stronger, paler
pottery if fired at a hotter temperature. The result was yellow ware, used largely for serviceable
items; but a further development was Rockingham ware — one of the most important American
ceramics of the nineteenth century. (The name of the ware was probably derived from its
resemblance to English brown-glazed earthenware made in South Yorkshire.) It was created by
adding a brown glaze to the fired clay, usually giving the finished product a mottled appearance.
Various methods of spattering or sponging the glaze onto the ware account for the extremely wide
variations in color and add to the interest of collecting Rockingham. An advanced form of
Rockingham was flint enamel, created by dusting metallic powders onto the Rockingham glaze to
produce brilliant varicolored streaks.
Articles for nearly every household activity and ornament could be bought in Rockingham
ware: dishes and bowls, of course; also bedpans, foot warmers, cuspidors, lamp bases, doorknobs,
molds, picture frames, even curtain tiebacks. All these items are highly collectible today and are
eagerly sought. A few Rockingham specialties command particular affection among collectors and
correspondingly high prices.
1. Why did the potters discussed in the passage change the kind of pottery they made?
A) They discovered a new kind of clay.
B) They were compensation for the loss of an overseas supplier.
C) They studied new techniques in Europe.
D) The pottery they had been producing was not very strong.
2. The word "ornate" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
3. The passage suggests that the earliest stoneware
A) was decorated with simple, abstract designs
B) used three-dimensional decorations
C) was valued for its fancy decorations
D) had no decoration
4. How did yellow ware achieve its distinctive color?
A) by sponging on a glaze
B) by dusting on metallic powders
C) by brown-glazing
D) by firing at a high temperature
5. The phrase "derived from" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A) ruined by
B) warned against
C) based on
D) sold by
6. The word "It" in line 20 refers to
A) red ware
B) yellow ware
C) Rockingham ware
D) English brown-glazed earthenware
7. The word "Various" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
8. The phrase "account for" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
9. What was special about flint enamel?
A) its even metallic shine
B) its mottled appearance
C) its spattered effect
D) its varicolored streaks
10. Which of the following kinds of Rockingham ware were probably produced in the greatest
A) picture frames
B) dishes and bowls
C) curtain tiebacks
11. The passage would most probably continue with a discussion of
A) what bedpans, foot warmers, and cuspidors were used for
B) well-known, modern-day potters who make Rockingham ware
C) examples of Rockingham ware that collectors especially want
D) pieces of Rockingham ware that are inexpensive in today's market
BAADC CDADB C