- 2018年04月11日13:17 来源：小站整理
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M: I totally agree with the letter.
W: How come? Don’t you think the campus looked pretty at night?
M: Well…it might make the buildings look nice at night but why should we waste so much money on something we really don’t need? Just for looks, there are more important things than that.
W: I can see your point.
M: I mean how long has that library project been going on?
W: Yeah, the whole third floor has been closed for the last few months.
M: Exactly. And just last night, I had my astronomy class with professor Henrik. He told us something that was totally disappointing. We’ve been tracking a comet all semester long and he says if the university’s plan goes through, we won’t be able to see the comet through telescopes anymore.
W: That’s so sad. You chose the school just because of the astronomy program, didn’t you?
Yeah, it’s such a good program. But if it’s too bright around here at night, we’ll have to go back to looking at the pictures of comets in the textbook. You could tell Professor Henrik is disappointed too. It’s the hands-on experience that gets everyone all excited.
When I was a student in the middle school, some of my classmates and I got an assignment to do a group presentation on tropical plants. OK, and as part of this assignment, we needed to memorize the names, you know and certain key characteristics of the plants. Then on the morning, the assignment was given, our teacher gave us time to work on the presentation during class, right there in the classroom. So there we were, during the school day, in our usual classroom, studying and memorizing the information. And our teacher and the other kids were all there too. Ok, so then later, on the night before the presentation, I invited my group members over to my house to do some final studying. And there we were, it was after dark, my parents and my brother were in the next room watching television and no one else was around. It felt pretty different from looking in the classroom with all our schoolmates around, like it was on that morning when we spent time learning the information. Anyway, at my house, when we tried to remember the plant information, we got a little worried. Suddenly, it was more difficult to remember all the names and different facts. But the next morning, when we were back in the classroom, the presentation actually went very smoothly. It was easier for us to remember what we needed to talked about.
W: So, how is the sesmter going so far?
M: Well, I’m having some trouble. I need some advice.
M: Well, I’m taking advanced chemistry and it’s turning out to be a lot more work than I expected, especially because we have to put in so much time in the laboratory.
M: Yeah, I really like it but my schedule is just too full because you know I’m also writing a weekly editorial for the campus newspaper? And now with advanced chemistry, it’s too much.
W: That’s right. Yes, I enjoy reading your editorials. Well…uh…how about instead of writing an editorial every week, you only write one every two weeks? Then next semester you go back to writing it every week.
M: Mmm…it is hard to keep up with those weekly deadlines and that would give me the extra time I need for advanced chemistry. But my editorial has so many readers. It’s the first thing a lot of people read and I hate to disappoint them.
W: Ok. Well, there’s another possibility. You’ll require to take a science course but you don’t have to take an advanced course so you could switch to a less challenging course, basic chemistry.
M: I guess the basic course would take up less time.
W: Definitely, for one thing, you’ll spend much less time in the laboratory.
M: Mmm…that’s an interesting idea but I love the challenge of the advanced course. I feel like I’m learning so much.
So we’ve been talking about how animals have developed different ways of surviving and one way is from having developed special physical characteristics that helped protect them from dangers in their environment. These are known as protective adaptations and there are two different kinds. Some animals have defensive adaptations. That means they protect themselves by having body structures that make it hard for predators to get at them. And other animals have offensive adaptations, body structures that keep predators away. All right, let’s start with the turtle. It’s a good example of animal with defensive adaptation. Since you’ve probably all seen turtles, you already know that it has a hard shell that covers its back and vital organs. Its shell is a special physical characteristic and it’ so strong, it won’t break or split open, making it very hard for predator to get at it. The turtle also has a flexible neck, so it can pull its head down under its shell. Its legs can also fold up under the shell and provide more protection still. All right, but now, let’s talk about the porcupine. That’s an animal that protects itself with an offensive adaptation by threatening a predator with physical harm. Uhm…in case you haven’t seen a porcupine recently, just imagine an animal with a small body that is covered with thousands of long sharp needle-like quills. Those quills are its special physical characteristic. So whenever a predator gets too near, when it brushes against a porcupine, those sharp quills come loose and become embedded in the predator’s skin. So predators know enough to stay away because they see the porcupine’s threatening quills and they don’t want to risk being hurt by them.
Speaking of a social or political event that is celebrated in my country is an educational reform back in 1987. The reason why it is of great significance is that it truly opens a new door for lots of talents in all walks of life and they had the opportunity to acquire self-achievement since then. For instance, before 1987, all people in China were encouraged to learn Russian rather than English because at that time China maintained a closer tie with Soviet Union and the government wanted to put this relationship to the greatest extent. In this case, people who are proficient in English language didn’t have even the slightest chance to play their part. However, after 1987’s educational reform, the leaders put much emphasis on English because they wanted to establish a connection with those more advanced western countries. Under this circumstance, the English professionals had the chance to bring their advantage into full play and changed their fate ever since. In short, the 1987’s reform in education is the very big event that my country usually celebrates.
This is a quite complicated question. It really depends on the very motive behind your making friends. If you want to improve yourself, it is much better to get in touch with a wide range of friends and acquaintances because by having access to a wider and more diverse social network, you could make progress in various aspects, like you may be capable of meeting people who are older than you and they could offer you the wisdom of their life experience. Nevertheless, if you would love to vent your emotions, a small and closer friend is always a better choice. When being in front of your close buddies, you just can be yourself and don’t have to care too much about what you say and do. Everything that you express and convey wouldn’t hurt any of your practical interest. It’s just a way of relief and relaxation. Therefore, to be with which sort of friends is up to your true need.
In the reading, one professor proposes that the school shouldn’t spend money purchasing a new lighting system because of two reasons. The first reason is that this new lighting system is too costly and this amount of money could be used to do other meaningful things. The second is that this new system is too bright and it may interfere with school’s academic project. In this listening, the man approves of the professor’s proposal. The first reason is that it is better for the school to spend the money finishing the library renovation, which is more urgent. And secondly, the students and their astronomy professor are recording a comet through a telescope. If this system is installed, it will make the sky at night too bright and the whole recording would be impossible to finish. Therefore, because of these two reasons the man agrees with the professor’s proposal letter.
In the reading, it talks about state-dependent memory, which means that a person’s ability to remember is easier and more successful if the environment is the same or similar to the original learning environment. In the listening, the professor gives out one example to illustrate this title. When the professor was in middle school. He and his friends were asked by their teacher to do an oral presentation on tropical plants. So they spent the whole morning their memorizing all the names and information about the plants in their classroom. However, when they got back home and wanted to continue their preparation for their next morning’s presentation they found it quite hard to remember the plant details because the professor’s families were watching television and it was not as quiet and easy-to-concentrate as in their classroom so they started getting a little bit worried. However, surprisingly, next morning when they went back to the classroom and did the speech, everything turned out being very smooth. And this case demonstrated how the environment will affect our ability to remember things.
In the conversation, the student is facing a problem that he is taking advanced chemistry course this semester but it takes him so much time that he doesn’t have any time left for his weekly editorial on school newspaper. There are two solutions. He could choose either to change the frequency into one editorial every two weeks or to take a less challenging course – basic science. As far as I’m concerned, the former is a better choice since as a student it is much more important to put one’s focus on academic performance. Not writing editorials on school newspaper or writing less wouldn’t hurt him a lot. Instead, if he gets a low score on his course, he may not get a promising career after graduation and what’s worse he may not even graduate from his university, Therefore, because of this reason I suppose that the first solution is better.
In the lecture, the professor talks about two different protective adaptations. There are two key points. The first key point is a defensive adaptation. Take turtle for example. A turtle has a hard shell covering its back and vital organs. And if it feels threatened, a turtle could fold its neck and legs into its hard shell so that they are all protected from its predators. The second key point is an offensive adaptation. For instance, a porcupine has lots of sharp needle-like quills which could scare its enemies to step back because they see how other predators are hurt by porcupines’ threatening quills and they don’t want to risking being treating in this way again. Therefore, by giving out these two examples, the professor illustrates two different protective adaptations.