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【小站原创】TPO50托福听力Lecture2文本+题目+答案解析

2018年04月11日13:38 来源:小站整理
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【小站原创】TPO50托福听力Lecture2文本+题目+答案解析图1

TPO50托福听力Lecture2原文文本

标题:The Classification of Creatures

Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.

Processor:

Ok. There are two major types of classifiers in the world, people we call lumpers and people we call splitters. A lumper is someone who tries to put as many thing as possible in one category. Splitters like to work for the differences and put things in as many different categories as possible.

Both lumpers and splitters work in the business of defining biological classifications. The great philosopher Aristotle is generally considered the first person to systematically categorize things. He divided all living things into two groups. They were either animal or vegetable. And these categories are what biologists came to call “kingdoms”. So if it ran around, it was an animal, a member of the animal kingdom. And if it stood still, and grew in the soil, it was a plant, a member of the plant kingdom. This system, organizing all life into these two kingdoms, worked very well for quite a while, even into the age of the microscope.

With the invention of the microscope, in the late 1500s, we discovered the first microorganisms. We thought that some wiggled and moved around and others were green and just sat there. So the ones that moved like animals were classified as animals, and the more plant-like ones as plants. Oh, before I go on I must mention Carolus Linnaeus. A hundred years or so after the invention of the microscope, Carolus Linnaeus devised a simple and practical system for classifying living things, according to the ranks of categorization still in use today——class, order, family and so on.

And by further best aspect of the Linnaeus system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature, having just two names to describe any living organism. This replaced the use of long descriptive names, as well as common names which vary from place to place and language to language. Binomial nomenclature gives every species a unique and stable two-word name, agreed upon by biologists worldwide.

But not everything about this system remained unchanged. Take for example the mushroom, a fungus. It grew up from the ground and looked like a plant. So it was classified as a plant. But using the microscope we discovered that a fungus contains these microscopic thread-like cells that run all over the place. And so it’s actually not that plant-like. So in this case, the splitters eventually won, and got a third kingdom just for the fungus.

And as microscopes improved, we discovered some microorganisms that were incredibly small.

I’m talking about bacteria. And we could see that they didn’t have what we call a nucleus. So they got their own kingdom, a kingdom of very tiny things without nucleoli. So then we had several kingdoms for plants and for animals, and the different kinds of fungus like mushrooms, and for these tiny bacteria. But we also had some other microorganisms that didn’t fit anywhere. So biologist gave them their own kingdom. And this fifth kingdom was sort of anything that doesn’t fit in the first four kingdom, which upset some people.

And then there was a question of viruses. Viruses have some characteristics of life but don’t reproduce on their own or use energy. So we still don’t know what to do with them. The lumpers want to keep viruses in the current system. Some of the splitters say to give them a separate kingdom. And the extreme splitters say that virus have nothing at all to do with living things and keep them out of my department.

Recent research though has moved to see yet another direction. Nowadays when we want to determine the characteristics of something, we look at its biochemistry and its genetic material. And what we’ve discovered is that some bacteria are not like the others. Many of these are called extremophiles. They live in very strange places, in polar ice or in a boiling water of hot springs or in water so salty (that) other organisms couldn’t live there. Extremophiles tend to have a different chemistry from other bacteria, a chemistry that in some case is actually more related to plants and animals than to previously known bacteria. So what to do with this strange bacteria?

Well, one thing we’ve done is creating a new set of categories, the domains, overarching the different kingdoms. Biologists now recognize three domains. But even as we talk about these new domains, well, come back in a few years and it might all be different.

TPO50托福听力Lecture2答案解析

12. 主旨题

答案:B

解析:

此题对应原文是:

Ok. There are two major types of classifiers in the world, people we call lumpers and people we call splitters. A lumper is someone who trys to put as many thing as possible in one category. Splitters like to work for the differences and put things in as many different categories as possible.

Both lumpers and splitters work in the business of defining biological classifications.

这道题问的是文章主旨大意,除了开头这里以外,还需要结合全文来作答。开头教授由分大类的人和分小类的人引入,话题一转开始说这两种分类原则不同的人也致力于给生物分类。再加上整篇讲座都在讲从古至今,生物学家对生物的分类是怎样一步步演变的,所以其实讲座是主要在讲生物分类的历史,选项B正确。选项A是生物分类的重要性,选项C是显微镜在生物分类中的作用,选项D是新发现的有机体的命名,都不符合讲座意思。选择B。

13. 目的题

答案:D

解析:

此题对应原文是:

Ok. There are two major types of classifiers in the world, people we call lumpers and people we call splitters. A lumper is someone who trys to put as many thing as possible in one category. Splitters like to work for the differences and put things in as many different categories as possible.

Both lumpers and splitters work in the business of defining biological classifications.

此题与第12题一样,既要看讲座开头lumpers和splitters的出处,还要结合全文。结合整篇讲座的展开我们可以知道,在生物分类的时候,分大类的人和分小类的人也是各持己见的,实际上这两种人代表了生物分类历史中生物学家走的两条不同途径。选项D符合原文意思。选项A的意思是为了强调早期和现代生物学家的不同,选项B的意思是为了指出早期生物分类并不是依据科学原则;选项C的意思是为早期生物分类系统提供例子,都不符合原文。选择D。

14. 推断题

答案:A

解析:

此题对应原文是:

And by further best aspect of the Linnaeus system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature, having just two names to describe any living organism. This replaced the use of long descriptive names, as well as common names which vary from place to place and language to language. Binomial nomenclature gives every species a unique and stable two-word name, agreed upon by biologists worldwide.

这里说明,在林奈创造出双名法之前,人们给生物命名的时候用的是描述性的长名字,而且不同语言不同地域之间人们对同一种生物的叫法各不相同,非常不方便。但是林奈的双名法问世之后,全球的生物学家普遍认同这种命名办法。这说明林奈的双名法出现之前,生物学家对于很多生物的命名不是统一的,是各叫各的名字,选项A符合原文意思。选项B的意思是很少人用显微镜,但原文中说了显微镜发明一百年后林奈才创造了双名法,这时候是很多人用显微镜的,错误;选项C说他们因为没有细胞核的微生物的发现而困惑,无中生有,错误;选项D说他们要出版自己的研究必须精通几国语言,也是无中生有,错误。选择A。

15. 细节题

答案:AD

解析:

此题对应原文是:

Many of these are called extremophiles. They live in very strange places, in polar ice or in a boiling water of hot springs or in water so salty (that) other organisms couldn’t live there. Extremophiles tend to have a different chemistry from other bacteria, a chemistry that in some case is actually more related to plants and animals than to previously known bacteria.

这里说明极端微生物有两个特点,一个是生存环境很奇怪,不是很冷就是很热;一个是它们的一种化学物质和动植物比较像。分别对应选项A和选项D。选项B说它们比别的细菌大,选项C说它们和病毒的结构相像,都属于无中生有,不选。双选AD。

16. 态度题

答案:C

解析:

此题对应原文是:

But even as we talk about these new domains, well, come back in a few years and it might all be different.

这里教授提到,很可能几年之后再回头看这个分类,会发现又有了很大的不同。所以她的态度是很难去把生物分类确定下来,生物分类是不断在变化的。选项C符合原文意思。选项A说她对于生物分类系统好多年没有变化感到惊奇,原文中一直在说这个分类系统如何不断演变,与原文矛盾,错误;选项B说她对于添加了很多没有必要的区别而沮丧,无中生有,错误;选项D说她强烈渴望用一个全新的分类系统,无中生有,错误。选择C。

17. 目的题

答案:C

解析:

此题对应原文是:

With the invention of the microscope, in the late 1500s, we discovered the first microorganisms. We thought that some xxx(we got?) and moved around and others were green and just sat there. So the ones that moved like animals were classified as animals, and the more plant-like ones as plants.

这里是在讲显微镜刚刚发明的时候,人们还是按照亚里士多德的动植物简单的分类法来分类显微镜下发现的新物种。选项C正确。选项A说显微镜就是为了研究和分类微生物发明的,无中生有,不选;选项B说显微镜的发明帮助科学家确认了关于微生物特征的预言,无中生有,不选;选项D说显微镜帮助科学家区分植物和动物的区别,无中生有,不选。选择C。

TPO 50托福听力Lecture 4翻译

请听一段生物学讲座。

教授:

好的。在世界上有两种分类者,一种被我们称为分大类的人,一种被我们称为分小类的人。分大类的人会尽力把各种事物都放在一个分类下。分小类的人则会着眼于事物之间的区别,把它们尽力划分出最多的类别。

分大类的人和分小类的人都致力于确定生物的分类。伟大的哲学家亚里士多德一般会被认为是系统地为生物分类的第一人。他把所有的生物分成了两个类别。它们不是动物就是植物。这些分类被生物学家称为“界”。所以如果一个生物可以四处跑来跑去,它就是动物,是动物界中的一员。如果它不动,长在土壤里,就是植物,属于植物界中的一员。这个分类系统把所有的生命体都划分进了这两个界,它一直起着很好的分类作用,即使是在发明了显微镜的时代。

随着十六世纪末期显微镜的发明,我们发现了第一批微生物。我们认为一部分生物是xxxx的且可以自由移动的,另一部分是绿色且不动的。所以那一些像动物一样可以移动的就被归类成了动物,更像植物的生物就被归类成了植物。哦,在我继续讲下去之前我必须先提一下卡罗勒斯·林奈。大约在显微镜发明的一百年后,卡罗勒斯•林奈发明出了一个给生物分类的简单而实用的系统,这个系统是根据等级编目法的——涉及的等级有纲,目,科等等,这些等级现在还在使用。

至今为止,林奈的分类系统最好的一点是,他普遍使用了双名法,也就是只使用两个名字来命名任何一种生物。这就代替了长长的描述性名字,也代替了地域之间、语言之间各不相同的对物种的俗称。双名法给每一个物种都起了一个独特稳定的双词名字,并且被全世界的生物学家所认同。

但是这个系统也并不是没有变化的。我们拿蘑菇,一种真菌的例子来说。蘑菇从地里长出来,看起来像是植物。它以前也是被分到植物那一类的。但是使用显微镜,我们发现真菌身上有这些微小的线状细胞,它们到处都是。这就真的不像是植物了。所以在这种情况下,分小类的人取得了最终的胜利,他们为真菌分出了第三个界。

随着显微镜的逐渐改进,我们发现一些微生物是非常之小的。我在说细菌。我们可以看到它们并没有细胞核。所以它们要独立出自己的界,一个没有核仁的非常小的生物的界。所以植物、动物、不同种类的真菌比如蘑菇、还有这些小小的细菌各自属于自己的界。但是我们还有一些别的微生物,它们不属于任何一个界。所以生物学家给它们单独分出了自己的界。这个第五界是不属于前四个界的生物的,这使得一些人沮丧。

还有一个问题就是病毒。病毒有一些生命体的特征,但是它们并不能自体繁殖,也不能使用能量。所以我们仍然不知道该怎么给病毒分类。分大类的人想把病毒也包含进目前的分类系统里。一些分小类的人说应该给病毒单独分出一个新的界。还有一些极端的分小类的人说病毒和生命体并没有什么关系,它们不能进入现在的生物分类系统。

然而近期的研究指向了另一个方向。现在,当我们想去决定一些生物的特征的时候,我们会看它的生物化学特征及基因组成。我们发现的是,一些细菌和其他细菌并不一样。很多这种细菌被称为极端微生物。它们居住在非常奇怪的地方,比如在极地冰层里,热温泉沸腾的泉水里或者在其他细菌存活不下去的高盐度的水里。极端微生物和别的细菌结构有差异,它们含有一种某些情况下与动植物联系更加密切的化学物质,这种物质与我们先前知道的细菌的联系倒是没有那么密切。所以我们该怎么划分这种奇怪的细菌呢?

我们已经做了的一件事是创造一系列新的分类,这个范畴横跨不同的界。生物学家现在定下了三个范畴。但是甚至就是在我们正在谈论这些新的范畴的时候,几年之后,它们也许会变得和现在很不一样。

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