【小站原创】TPO41托福阅读文本及答案解析（Trade and Early State Formation）
- 2016年05月09日10:39 来源：小站教育作者：小站托福编辑
- 参与（21） 阅读（20185）
Trade and Early State Formation
Bartering was a basic trade mechanism for many thousands of years; often sporadic and usually based on notions of reciprocity, it involved the mutual exchange of commodities or objects between individuals or groups. Redistribution of these goods through society lay in the hands of chiefs, religious leaders, or kin groups. Such redistribution was a basic element in chiefdoms. The change from redistribution to formal trade—often based on regulated commerce that perhaps involved fixed prices and even currency—was closely tied to growing political and social complexity and hence to the development of the state in the ancient world.
1. The word "notions" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
Ideas, 概念，想法。Rules, 规则，条例。Degrees, 程度，等级。 Traditions, 惯例，传统。