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【独立写作满分系列·语言篇】运用多种句型来体现文章句式的复杂程度

2018年07月30日14:26 来源:小站整理
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摘要:很多学生平时在学习独立写作的时候经常会发出一个疑问,想要考出20+甚至25+的成绩到底需要文章逻辑更好还是语言更好?要我具备什么样的语言能力能满足高分的要求?我们今天就为大家进行一下具体的分析。

为了回答我们上面提出的两个问题,首先我们来看一下OG的评分标准。官方指南对托福独立写作的评分标准一共有三个维度,分别为展开、组织架构和语言使用。下面我们主要来看一下评分标准如何对语言使用进行描述。

 

Language use is the third criterion on which your essay will be judged. To get a top score, an essay must display “consistent facility in the use of language.” There should be a variety of sentence structures, and word choice should be appropriate. If your essay includes a few minor lexical or grammatical errors, you can still get a high score. However, if you make a lot of grammatical errors and if those errors make it hard to understand your meaning, you will get a lower score. Raters will also judge your essay based on the complexity of sentence structures and on the quality and complexity of your vocabulary.  If you use very simple sentences and very basic vocabulary, you will probably not be able to express very complex ideas. If your language is hard to follow, your sentences are overly simple, and your vocabulary is limited, you may score no higher than a 3 no matter how impressive your ideas may be.

 

我们在这段描述中有三个重点,我们分别来看一下:

① There should be a variety of sentence structures…  文章中句式要多样

② Raters will also judge your essay based on the complexity of sentence structures… 使用复杂的句子结构

③ If your language is hard to follow, your sentences are overly simple, and your vocabulary is limited, you may score no higher than a 3 no matter how impressive your ideas may be. 无论文章观点多好,过于简单的句式和过于简单的词汇不会使文章超过3分

 

也就是说,想要考到写作20+的成绩,文章中的句式绝对不能全部都是简单句,要能够运用多种句型来体现文章句式的复杂程度。这就需要考生在平时练习的过程中,了解有哪些高级句式,以及句式之间如何进行替换。

 

1、 基本句型
  l 因果
  On account of/owing to/due to+ N
  For the reason that/as/since+句子
  It is due to____that
  eg:It is due to his persistence and perseverance that he eventually reached his acme.(强调句)
  derive/arise/stem from来源于
  eg:His success derives from his persistence and perseverance.
  ascribe A to B 归结于
  eg: His success can be ascribed/attributed to his persistence and perseverance
  l 条件
  A serves as a catalyst for B(our further success)
  If/on condition that/provided that/as long as________
  l 让步
  Despite the fact that/regardless of


  2、 经典句型
  l 倒装
  1) Only via(by/through /with/when/after) __do/did/can we__
  ef: Only after going to the beach of Hawaii will I know about American typical type of spending leisure time.
  2) Hardly/Seldom/Scarcely can__
  ef: Hardly can we imagine a world/our life without/devoid of
  3) So +adj+主谓倒装+that__
  4) Not only 主谓倒装 but also...
  eg: Not only should education prepare children to compete
  Not only do people care their economic needs,they but also want to meet their spiritual needs.
  5) On no account 主谓倒装(决不....)
  l 强调
  It is/was....that/who(m)....
  l 插入语
  1) 限定性副词 probably/directly or indirectly/to some(a large) extent
  2) N+,ving,+v
  3) 同位语


  3、经典中的经典
  l 排比
  1) It is tourism that gives me the opportunity to know the culture of this dynamic, robust and alive country.
  2) It is computers that make our life diverse,convenient,dynamic/ vibrant, without which our life would probably pale.
  3) A/which needs to be/In this way, A can be readily accepted, respected,appreciated and advocated.
  4) Only via university education can we have systematic knowledge concerning arts and science.Only via university education can we know the essence of symbiosis and collaboration. And Only via university education can we meet the demands of society and make our future success inevitable.
  l 十大副词
  1) Considerably
  2) Invariably
  3) Undoubtedly/indisputably/incontrovertibly
  4) Increasingly
  5) Most/exceedingly/exceptionally 格外地
  6) Insightfully 富有见底地
  7) Regrettably
  8) Effectively and efficiently
  9) Gradually and eventually
  10) Readily
  l 其他
  1) It is not difficult for us to imagine that 不难想象
  2) B makes it possible for us to have an universal access to A/A is readily available. A容易得到
  3) In order to survive and thrive in this fiercely competitive society, people have no choice but to work and study hard.
  4) Ruthless and relentless无形/fierce and intense competition
  The ruthless and relentless competition imposes an unprecedented pressure on each and every individual, and therefore,there is no exaggeration to say that our innovative and inventive ability can lay a solid foundation for our future, enabling us to survive and thrive in the modern world.
  5) Inspiration, aspiration and perspiration
  6) Vision,passion and mission

 

l范文: 2013.3.17

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

A leader should admit if they made a bad decision. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

A good leader has plentiful of features such as sense of humor, patience and leadership that make him or her a perfect leader. However, when it comes to decision making, people’s opinions differ. Some people deem that best leaders are not supposed to make a bad decision while opponents consider making bad decisions a natural part of human being not mentioning best leaders. In my perspectives, best leaders are those who are willing to admit if they have made improper decisions. I shall illustrate my points in the following paragraphs.

First and foremost, admitting of the wrong decisions that are made reflects leaders’ broad minds, which are a must to best leaders. To err is a man. Nobody makes no mistake, but not everyone admit they make bad decisions due to vain self-esteem. Those who are willing to or even like to admit the wrong decision are broad-minded, and people will respect these kind of people. A recent survey about what sort of bosses employees like conducted by a prodigious institute in United States showed that 70% of employees vote for boss who are broad-minded. Therefore, admitting inappropriate decisions makes a leader outstanding.

Another equally important factor is that admission of bad decision making can help a leader avoid errors when faced with similar problems again. Of course, concerning the development of a company or a group, it will be optimal for leaders to make less mistake. Denial of making bad decision may be an idea to make that but not a good one. In a long run, it will be better to admit making wrong decisions in order to avoid similar challenges in the future. Covering mistakes all the time will eventually destroy a company or a group.

Last but not least, denial of making wrong decision show that the leaders have no courage to face what they have done while courage is a vital characteristic for a top leader. There is little doubt that the courage of leader plays a significant part fordevelopments of a company or a group. Without courage to make breakthroughs, it is hard to imagine how a company could survive in the fierce competitions among the modern society. However, denial of making bad decision just show the lack of courage. Therefore, the leader cannot be regarded in the circle of best leaders.

In a nutshell, the admission of making bad decisions can show their broad mind and courage. In order to avoid the similar problems, best leaders should be willing to admit what they have done. Hence, I reinforce my point of view that best leaders are those who are willing to admit if they have made a bad decision.

以上就是今日分享的【独立写作满分系列·结构篇】,希望对大家在独立写作方面有所帮助。早日与托福分手!

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