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托福听力常考知识点剖析:科德角小屋

2018年05月08日13:52 来源:小站整理
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摘要:建筑学是托福听力常考学科话题领域之一,无论是机经真题还是托福TPO都能见到它的身影,下面我们就结合TPO11的Lecture2涉及的“科德角小屋”建筑风格,了解一下托福听力会如何考察相关内容吧。

托福听力涉及话题多样,尤其是偏向于学术课堂场景的讲座类,经常考到一些我们并不熟悉的学科,适当的掌握一些背景知识和常考考点有助于我们更迅速精准地听懂听力内容。建筑学是托福听力常考学科话题领域之一,无论是机经真题还是托福TPO都能见到它的身影,下面我们就结合TPO11的Lecture2涉及的“科德角小屋”建筑风格,了解一下托福听力会如何考察相关内容吧。

托福听力常考知识点剖析:科德角小屋图1

Introduction:

Cape Cod

科德角小屋是 17 世纪起源于英格兰的一种建筑风格。

Background information

A Cape Cod cottage is a style of houseoriginating in New England in the 17th century. It is traditionallycharacterized by a low, broad frame building, generally a story and a halfhigh, with a steep, pitched roof with end gables, a large central chimney andvery little ornamentation. Traditional Cape Cod houses were very simple:symmetrically designed with a central front door surrounded by two multi-panedwindows on each side. Homes were designed to withstand the stormy, starkweather of the Massachusetts coast. Modern Cape Cod architecture still drawsfrom colonial designs.

The Pilgrims designed houses that providedsafety from New England’s extreme winter climate. Temperatures in January andFebruary can drop to -20 degrees Fahrenheit, and multiple-feet snow pile-upsoccur frequently. To fight the chill, the Pilgrims built extensive centralchimneys and low ceilinged rooms to conserve heat. Most Cape Cod homes facedthe south, which allowed sunlight to enter the windows and provide additionalheat. The steep roof characteristic of New England homes also preventedexcessive amounts of snow from accumulating on the house.

External walls of classic Cape Cod housesare covered with unpainted shingles or clapboarding. After prolonged exposureto natural elements, the wood obtains an earthy gray color. The houses usuallylack front porches, although modern Capes sometimes include screened-in porcheslocated to one side of the home. The decorative highlight of Cape Cod homes isthe front door, which is painted in distinct colors, bears an ornament orwreath, and has intricate carving. The windows of the home are surrounded byshutters that either match the front door or are painted white. Other exteriordesign features include a steep roof with a small overhang, a white picketfence around the front yard, and a detached garage.

Knowledge points:

1. 科德角小屋是 17 世纪起源于英格兰的一种建筑风格。它的特点是低矮的,宽框架建筑,一般是一层,一半高,屋顶陡峭,一个大的中央烟囱和极少的装饰。传统的科德角房子很简单:中间前门的两边被多扇窗户围绕。

2. 用来拜祭的房子需要抵抗英格兰极其严寒的天气。为了抵抗严寒,房子设有宽阔的中央烟囱和低矮的房间保存热量。大多数科德角房子都朝南,让阳光进入房间,提供额外的热量。陡峭的房顶也可以阻止过多的积雪堆积在房顶上。

3. 传统的科德角小屋的外墙采用没有刷过漆的墙板。其他的外部设计特点包括陡峭的稍微突出的房顶,环绕前院的白色的尖桩篱栅和一个独立车库。

Vocabulary prediction:

Peninsula 半岛

Dwelling 住所

Chimney 烟囱

Plain 朴素的

Test Point – TPO11L2

Student 2

And whenever I visit my grandparents, it’sreally wet. It’s usually either raining or snowing or foggy and windy, too. Iguess because it’s so exposed to the ocean?

Professor

That’s right. So take another look at thisdrawing, and you can image how this design might be particularly helpful inthat kind of climate. Notice how the house is fairly low to the ground. Thisrelatively low compact structure helps the house withstand the strong windsblowing off the ocean. And look at the slope of the roof, the steep angle helpskeep off all that rain and snow that accumulates in the winter. Another thing,Cape Cod houses usually face south to take advantage of the sun’s warm throughthe windows. That’s helpful in winter. Now what can you tell me about thechimney, about its location.

Student 2

Well, it’s in the middle. Because, doesthat have something to do with heating the houses? I mean since the heat neverhas to travel very far.

Student 1

That means you can heat the house moreefficiently, right?

Professor

Exactly, now see how the house has verylittle exterior decoration, that’s also typical of early Cape Cod houses. Thewind was one reason, nothing sticking out might blow away in the harsh weather,but there was probably another reason, not related to the climate, morereflection of a rural New England society back then, you see Cape Cod houseswere not built in the big cities, where all the rich people lived back then.These were the modest dwellings the people who built them simply couldn’tafford lots of expensive decorated details. But that was more than just matterof money. In these rural areas, people depended on each other for survival.Neighbors had to help and supported each other in the difficult environment, soyou didn't want to appear to be showing off. You wanted to avoid anything thatmight set you apart from your neighbors, the same people you might need to helpyou someday. So all these help to create an attitude of conformity in thecommunity, and you can see why a modest, a very plain style would become sowidely imitated throughout rural New England.

Knowledge points

1.低矮的密实结构帮助房子抵御由海洋吹来的强风。

2.位于中间的烟囱能够更有效地帮助房子加热。

3.房子的设计出了跟天气有关,还是英格兰乡村社会生活的反映。在乡村中,人们要互相依靠着生活。困难情况下邻里要互相帮助,因此不能够过于炫耀。房子简单平实的设计符合他们的生活环境。

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