【题目】Whether the declining of bison was caused by the European American settlers.
【阅读】About bison, a kind of animal, something like cattle or horse. The passage suggests that the declining bison was due to the European American settlers:
1. When European American cross prairies, they hunted bison as food because there is no food in prairies.
2. They brought cattle and horses, which competed with bison for resources.
3. The evolving technology, especially guns, let hunters kill several bison in a short time.
【听力】The professor contradicts each of these three points:
1. The European American moved from east to west, but the bison decline in the western part of America. The pattern of how bison disappeared gradually was different from that of movement of European American.
2. Bison have double furs covering their bodies and unique head structure, which allow them to live in harsher and colder areas. The areas were unreachable for cattle and horses. How could different spices compete with each other in separate territories?
3. The advanced technology should not be blame worthy for the decreasing bison. The ancient methods are as effectively as guts. Skilled ancient American hunters could kill several bison with short intervals.
【阅读】Heinrich Schliemann discovered a golden mask of warrior king. He claimed that the golden mask is the Mask of Agamemnon. However, the archaeology industry suspects that the golden mask is a fake. There are three reasons for that.
1. Firstly, Schliemann has a reputation of faking his discovery and excavation. He used to buy an antique from a craftsman and claim that the item is from ancient Greek until it was identified a fake. Therefore, the golden mask is very suspicious and Schliemann is incredible.
2. Secondly, some features of the golden mask are different from the authentic golden masks from Ancient Greek. Ancient Greek golden masks have very flat appearance and no pointed hairs. The golden mask of warrior king discovered by Schliemann has very well-defined lips and pointed beard. Therefore, the golden mask is a fake.
3. Thirdly, Schliemann immediately shut down the site where the golden mask is discovered after he found the golden mask. This is a very suspicious behavior. Usually archeologist will continue to excavate the site in the hope of finding more cultural information about the discovery, such as the historical context and identify whose mask it is. More information about the mask could have been discovered to identify the mask, however, Schliemann close the site in a rush, revealing his afraid of being found that the mask is a fake.
【听力】Though many archeologists think the golden mask of warrior king is a fake, but I think that is an authentic item from Ancient Greek. There are three reasons to refute the points in the passage.
1. Firstly, Schliemann did have a reputation of faking discovery and excavation. However, for this mask, it's not easy to fake. The Greek government is familiar with Schliemann's reputation of dishonesty and specifically assigned a supervisor to closely supervise and monitor Schliemann's work of excavation. If Schliemann really cheated on this discovery, it's hard to do so without being caught by the supervisor.
2. Secondly, a golden mask of lion from Ancient Greek, which was proved an authentic antique, was compared with the golden mask of warrior king. The golden lion mask also has three-dimensioned lips and nose, and all pointed hair. All the features are comparable to the golden mask of warrior king.
3. Thirdly, the timing of the site being shut down immediately after the golden mask was discovered can be explained. Schliemann was not a real archeologist but a treasure hunter. It fitted a treasure hunter's habit to close the site immediately after he depleted all the valuable things in the site. Therefore, Schliemann's behavior of shutting down the site is not suspicious.
【阅读】Suggestions to fight White Nose Syndrome (a kind of fungus killed lots of North American bats in the past few years)
1. One suggestion is restricting people to access the caves where bats live, because fungus can be spread cave to cave by riding on people’s clothes.
2. The second suggestion is studying a species of bats that is resistant to fungus.
3. The third suggestion is heating the cave.
【听力】Refute the three explanations mentioned in reading passage.
1. The lecturer refutes the point by saying that people are not main factors to help spread fungus, and it is bats themselves that spread the fungus, because in some caves where people cannot access, there’s fungus still.
2. Resistance is formed during the process of complex biological evolution. And understanding the process needs decades. However, the bats will die out in 10 years if there’s no effective remedy.
3. Bats die because the fungus wakes them up and forces them to face starvation. If the caves are heated, bats will be unable to sleep and thus suffer the starvation. Therefore this suggestion will make the situation worse.
【题目】讨论the reasons about the death of Ichthyosaurs。
【阅读】Three possible reasons
1. They died of toxic algae.
2. They stranded in shallow water.
3. They were preserved in a pattern by other creatures.
【听力】The reasons are not established.
1. The fossils of ichthyosaurs show that they died in different time. Some were formed earlier than others.
2. According to the seafloor, it was deep water in the past.
3. These nine bones were put in order; however, this creature only put them at random.
【题目】The reason that causes the low production of rhino in parks.
【阅读】Three causes can explain the low production of rhino in parks.
1. Infertility results from the alfalfa and hay in animal fodder, which increasing it hormone.
2. Rhinos develop foot disease for often walking on the hard surface.
3. Brain disorder in the newborn rhinos makes them cannot live long.
【听力】The listening argues against the three reasons mentioned in the reading.
1. Infertility can be cured by regulating the rhino’s hormone.
2. Advanced radiographic image equipment can detect the early anomaly of the bone and feet, which can heal the foot disease.
3. The reason for the little rhino’s brain disorder is that its mother is so old that it carries toxic chemical element. So letting younger rhino bear child is one of the solution.