- 2018年06月29日14:13 来源：小站整理
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艺术类是托福听力讲座部分高频考察学科话题之一，也是让很多同学觉得难以应对的一个学科话题备考类别，TPO54的托福听力lecture3就考察了关于William Wheatley 的百老汇戏剧等内容，下面我们一起来看一看这篇托福听力讲座的文本材料与题目解析。
Title：William Wheatley and Broadway Theaters
Listen to part of a lecture in a theater history class.
One of the things New York city is known for is its Broadway theaters，the productions of elaborate musicals. A lot of money goes into producing a musical with the actors, costumes, scenery and so on. The shows are designed to appeal to large audiences, to make the production financially viable. But theater didn’t always appeal to the masses. In the middle of the 19th century, with mostly wealthy residents who were going to Broadway, they would see an opera that was probably written and produced in Europe before making its way all over to New York. It was a scene for, well, the socially prominent, the upper class, who attended these functions, perhaps, because they felt obligated rather than because of a genuine interesting theater. [a1]
But, in the 1860s, something else started to occur. The middle-class population began to grow, and they were looking for a source of entertainment. [a2] Keep that in mind while I talk about the theater owner named William Wheatley. In 1866, William Wheatley had this show, um, and it was different from most shows on Broadway at the time because it wasn’t an opera. And, it was developed right here in the United States, in English, unlike the operas which were typically Italian or French.[a3] Wheatley also decided to incorporate some fancy production techniques, stage effects. The show also included music to make it more entertaining. And, through a stroke of luck, a world-renown ballet troop became available just as weekly show was about to open. So, he didn’t hesitate to include the ballet dancers in his production. Along the lines of those special affects I mentioned, Wheatley redesign the entire stage for the show. Every floor board on the stage could be lifted up or pushed down. They were all moveable. This allowed for trap doors to be placed anywhere on the stage. So, pieces of the set, of the scenery, could easily be stored beneath the stage.[a4] And these trap doors also gave performers another less traditional way to enter in exit of the stage. Well, today, we might not think much of it, things like this are standard nowadays，the concept was quite novel at the time of Wheatley show. And was one of the things that made the show a hit with audiences.
Another innovative element in the show was a scene called the ‘transformation scene’, during this scene, the audience watched in amazement that a setting on stage changed from a moonlit cave to a throne room in a palace. Normally to have this type of major scene change, the curtains were closed, the stage crew would remove the previous set and replaced it with the new one, and then, the curtains would open again. In this instance though, the transformation to place in front of the audience using simple machinery. And this affect, would have the lasting impression on everyone who saw Wheatley’s production. [a5]
In fact, those people were probably disappointed when they saw another show that didn’t contain something is, well, as elaborate or exciting. So, look, when it premiered, Wheatley show took audiences by surprise, it appealed to large crowds including the growing middle-class, the show ran for almost two years straight in New York city, and achievement unheard of at the time when productions typically lasted weeks or months, not years. It also went on tour visiting different cities across the United States for over 25 years. So, the show was quite a success.
And with all that in mind, some people call Wheatley show the first musical on Broadway. Now our current definition of a musical is that it tells a story through dialogue and song. In Wheatley show the musical sections, well, they didn’t necessarily integrate well with the story. Giving an overall impression of something more like a variety show, yes, everything was loosely focused around the central scene, so maybe it’s fair to say then that the show gave audiences a hint of a new form of musical theater， that would ultimately appear on Broadway in the decades to follow. [a6]
6、What is the main purpose of the lecture?
A. To describe the influence of opera on Broadway productions
B. To explain how new technology allowed for enhancements to Broadway productions
C. To evaluate financial decisions made by theater owner William Wheatley
D. To examine elements that set a particular theatrical production apart from earlier ones
7、What was typical of theatrical productions in the United States before the 1860s?
Click on 2 answers
A. The productions originated outside of the United States.
B. Only a limited segment of society attended the productions.
C. People attended the productions because they were interested in the plots.
D. The themes of the productions were typically related to the upper class.
解析：本题为细节题，题目问在19世纪60年代美国的戏剧作品的典型特点是什么?由出题点1，锁定时间点“In 1866”，William Wheatley 的作品不同于大多数当时在百老汇上演的剧目，它是在纽约发展的，用英语，不像那些典型的意大利语或法语的歌剧。由此推出之前的戏剧是在美国之外的地方发展起来的，则A项正确;由出题点2，可知在19世纪60年代之前，去看戏剧的基本只有上层阶级，则B项正确。
8、According to the professor, what was a reason for a change in theatrical productions in the United States during the 1860s?
A. A growing middle class was in need of entertainment.
B. Wealthy theater advocates provided additional funding for new productions.
C. The interest of theatergoers shifted from opera to ballet.
D. A new artistic movement was founded by a group of actors.
9、Why does the professor mention moveable floorboards on the stage in Wheatley's production?
A. To explain the reason for an unexpected technical problem
B. To highlight one of the production’s innovative features
C. To point out a similarity between early and modern theater in the United States
D. To give an example of a modification that was made for the ballet troupe
10、What was the audience's reaction to the transformation scene in Wheatley's production?
A. The audience was disappointed by the scene's short duration.
B. The audience was confused by the scene's unfamiliar elements.
C. The audience was amazed by the scene-changing process.
D. The audience was impressed at how quickly the stage crew moved objects onto the set.
解析：本题为细节题，题目问，观众对Wheatley作品中的移动舞台有什么反应?由出题点可知，观众对这个舞台改变的过程是感觉很惊奇的，其中“was amazed by”是对“ watched in amazement”的转换，“scene-changing”是对“transformation scene”的转换，则C项正确。
11、According to the professor, what is one way in which Wheatley's production was different from modern musicals?
A. The performers in Wheatley's production performed more than one role.
B. Wheatley’s production was created for the upper class.
C. The songs in Wheatley's production did not include lyrics.
D. The musical numbers in Wheatley's production did not correspond with the plot.
解析：本题为细节题，题目问，由教授可知， Wheatley的作品与当代音乐剧有什么不同?由出题点可知，Wheatley的作品中的音乐与故事情节并不是很统一，D项中的“did not correspond with”与文中的“didn’t necessarily integrate well with the story”相对应，则D选项正确。