网站导航     在线客服  
2018托福真题解析汇总
学生选择在小站备考:30天 426915名,今日申请167人    备考咨询 >>

TPO54托福阅读passage1真题原文与翻译

2018年06月27日20:19 来源:小站整理
参与(0) 阅读(1979)

托福备考资料免费领取

免费领取
摘要:小站君为大家分享TPO54托福阅读passage1的原文与翻译,这篇文章介绍了美国木材的商业化过程,各位可以充分利用TPO真题文本作为托福阅读备考的精读练习材料,助力托福阅读提分。

我们都知道精读是提升托福阅读水平不可或缺的重要方法之一,而精读材料的选择也非常关键。其实对于托福阅读而言最好的精读练习材料莫过于TPO真题,通过对真题阅读文本的深入研读我们可以归纳积累各类高频学科词汇,也可以把一些亮眼表达借鉴应用到自己的托福写作中,并揣摩作者写作思路和文章整体框架结构。下面我们为大家分享TPO54托福阅读passage1的原文与翻译,各位可以以此为双语精读素材,助力托福阅读备考。

TPO54托福阅读passage1真题原文与翻译图1

The Commercialization of Lumber

In nineteenth-century America, practically everything that was built involved wood. Pine was especially attractive for building purposes. It is durable and strong, yet soft enough to be easily worked with even the simplest of hand tools. It also floats nicely on water, which allowed it to be transported to distant markets across the nation. The central and northern reaches of the Great Lakes states—Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota—all contained extensive pine forests as well as many large rivers for floating logs into the Great Lakes, from where they were transported nationwide.

By 1860, the settlement of the American West along with timber shortages in the East converged with ever-widening impact on the pine forests of the Great Lakes states. Over the next 30 years, lumbering became a full-fledged enterprise in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Newly formed lumbering corporations bought up huge tracts of pineland and set about systematically cutting the trees. Both the colonists and the later industrialists saw timber as a commodity, but the latter group adopted a far more thorough and calculating approach to removing trees. In this sense, what happened between 1860 and 1890 represented a significant break with the past. No longer were farmers in search of extra income the main source for shingles, firewood, and other wood products. By the 1870s, farmers and city dwellers alike purchased forest products from large manufacturing companies located in the Great Lakes states rather than chopping wood themselves or buying it locally.

The commercialization of lumbering was in part the product of technological change. The early, thick saw blades tended to waste a large quantity of wood, with perhaps as much as a third of the log left behind on the floor as sawdust or scrap. In the 1870s, however, the British-invented band saw, with its thinner blade, became standard issue in the Great Lakes states' lumber factories. Meanwhile, the rise of steam-powered mills streamlined production by allowing for the more efficient, centralized, and continuous cutting of lumber. Steam helped to automate a variety of tasks, from cutting to the carrying away of waste. Mills also employed steam to heat log ponds, preventing them from freezing and making possible year-round lumber production.

For industrial lumbering to succeed, a way had to be found to neutralize the effects of the seasons on production. Traditionally, cutting took place in the winter, when snow and ice made it easier to drag logs on sleds or sleighs to the banks of streams. Once the streams and lakes thawed, workers rafted the logs to mills, where they were cut into lumber in the summer. If nature did not cooperate—if the winter proved dry and warm, if the spring thaw was delayed—production would suffer. To counter the effects of climate on lumber production, loggers experimented with a variety of techniques for transporting trees out of the woods. In the 1870s, loggers in the Great Lakes states began sprinkling water on sleigh roads, giving them an artificial ice coating to facilitate travel. The ice reduced the friction and allowed workers to move larger and heavier loads.

But all the sprinkling in the world would not save a logger from the threat of a warm winter. Without snow the sleigh roads turned to mud. In the 1870s, a set of snowless winters left lumber companies to ponder ways of liberating themselves from the seasons. Railroads were one possibility. At first, the remoteness of the pine forests discouraged common carriers from laying track. But increasing lumber prices in the late 1870s combined with periodic warm, dry winters compelled loggers to turn to iron rails. By 1887, 89 logging railroads crisscrossed Michigan, transforming logging from a winter activity into a year-round one.

Once the logs arrived at a river, the trip downstream to a mill could be a long and tortuous one. Logjams (buildups of logs that prevent logs from moving downstream) were common—at times stretching for 10 miles—and became even more frequent as pressure on the northern Midwest pinelands increased in the 1860s. To help keep the logs moving efficiently, barriers called booms (essentially a chain of floating logs) were constructed to control the direction of the timber. By the 1870s, lumber companies existed in all the major logging areas of the northern Midwest.

木材的商业化

在十九世纪的美国,几乎所有东西都是由木头制造的。松木在建筑用途中尤为受欢迎。它耐用而坚固,却又足够软到即使用最简单的手工工具也能轻易操作。它还能非常好地漂浮在水上,因而它可以穿过国家被转移到遥远的市场。五大湖国家中部和北部的河段地区——密歇根,威斯康星,以及明尼苏达——全都包含了广阔的松木林并且拥有许多大河流来将原木漂流输送进五大湖内,松木由此被输送至全国各地。

到1860年,美国西部的定居伴随着东部地区的木材短缺趋势对于在五大湖地区松木林的影响不断扩大。在之后三十年,伐木业在密歇根,威斯康星,明尼苏达成为了一个完全成熟的行业。新成立的伐木公司买了大片的松木林土地并开始系统化地砍伐树木。殖民者与之后的工业家都把木材看作是货物,但之后的团体采取了一个更周密精明的方法来转移走树木。在这个意义上,在1860到1890年发生的事代表了一个对过去的重大突破。农民们不再从墙面板,木柴以及其他木制品中寻求额外收入。到19世纪70年代,农民和城市居民同样从五大湖的大制造企业中购买森林产品而不是亲自伐木或去当地购买。

伐木业的商品化是科技化转变产物的一部分。早先,粗锯条更容易浪费大量的木头,大约有三分之一的原木被当做锯末或碎片留在地上。在1870年代,然而,英国发明的带锯条,它有着更细的缝刃,成为五大湖伐木业的标配。同时,随着蒸汽工厂的兴起,用更有效率,集中,连续不断的方式砍伐木头,流程化地进行产出。蒸汽帮助使许多任务实现自动化,从伐木到带走废料。工厂还让蒸汽来加热原木池,防止它们结冰,从而实现了全年的原木生产。

为了工业伐木业的成功,必须找到一种能消除在生产中的季节性影响的办法。通常的伐木在冬天进行,雪和冰使得用雪橇将原木拖到河流岸边变得更加容易。一旦溪水和湖泊解冻,工人们用木筏运载木头到工厂,夏天它们在那儿被砍成木材。如果自然不配合——如若冬天又干又暖和,春天解冻延迟了——生产将遭受困难。为了对抗气候在原木生产中的影响,伐木工人试验了很多不同的技术来将树木运送出树林。在19世纪70年代,工人们在五大湖滑雪道上洒水,给路铺上一层人工雪来使运输变得便利。冰减轻了摩擦并使工人能移动更大更重的货物。

但是在这个世界上任何洒水行为并不能在一个暖和冬天的威胁中拯救一个工人。(即如果遇上温暖的冬天,即使洒水也无法减轻摩擦使运输变得更加容易。)没有雪,滑雪道会变成泥。在19世纪70年代,一连串的无雪冬日,让伐木公司思考从季节性影响中解放出来的方法。铁路是一种可能性。一开始,松树林的偏僻阻拦了普通运送者们铺设轨道。但是在1870年末,递增的木材价格,结合周期性回暖,以及干燥的冬天,促使工人们寻求铁路方法。到1887年,89条木材轨道纵横交错穿越密歇根,将伐木从一个冬季活动变成全年的活动。

一旦原木到达一条河,顺流到工厂的路程将是又长又艰险的。漂浮原木造成的阻塞(堆积起来的原木使得原木难以往下游移动)是常见的——有时延伸到十公里——并且在19世纪60年代末,当中西部松林北部的伐木压力增加的时候,变得越来越频繁。为了帮助原木移动更有效率,被叫做吊杆的障碍物(本质上是漂浮的原木链)被构建来控制木材的方向。到19世纪70年代,木材公司存在于中西部地区北部的所有主要伐木区。

以上就是关于TPO54托福阅读passage1的真题原文与翻译内容分享,我们可以看到这篇文章介绍了美国木材的商业化过程,关于某样事务或内容的历史发展进程是托福阅读常考话题领域之一,各位在备考过程中可以多加留心,学会积累与参考。

特别申明:本文内容来源网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵权请立即与我们联系contactus#zhan.com,我们将及时处理。

相关文章

110分托福大神力荐!搞定听说读写这些材料必备 托福加试全破解 轻松搞定加试这件小事儿 TPO54托福阅读passage3原文与翻译 生命的元素 【小站原创】TPO48托福阅读文本及答案解析(Chines... 【小站原创】TPO49托福阅读文本及答案解析(Ancien... 托福阅读真题练习:100篇托福阅读原文+题目+答案 【小站原创】TPO40托福阅读文本及答案解析(Amphib... 【小站原创】TPO46托福阅读文本及答案解析(The Or...

专题推荐

未输入验证码
未输入验证码
未输入验证码
获取验证码
免费领取
小站教育托福官方群

群号:857201332

「扫二维码 加入群聊」
加入
托福关键词