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TPO54托福阅读Passage1原文与真题解析

2018年06月27日11:43 来源:小站整理
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摘要:TPO是我们备考过程中不可多得的宝贵资料,尤其是进行真题练习的过程中,牢牢把握住TPO真题可以有效助力备考。下面我们来看一下TPO54托福阅读passage1的原文与真题以及真题解析内容。

TPO全称Toefl Practice Online,是托福考试出题机构美国教育考试中心给出的官方练习真题,其实也就是以前考过的真题。小站君为各位分享TPO54托福阅读Passage1的原文真题与解析,希望对各位的托福阅读备考有所帮助。

TPO54托福阅读Passage1原文与真题解析图1

The Commercialization of Lumber

In nineteenth-century America, practically everything that was built involved wood. Pine was especially attractive for building purposes. It is durable and strong, yet soft enough to be easily worked with even the simplest of hand tools. It also floats nicely on water, which allowed it to be transported to distant markets across the nation. The central and northern reaches of the Great Lakes states—Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota—all contained extensive pine forests as well as many large rivers for floating logs into the Great Lakes, from where they were transported nationwide.

By 1860, the settlement of the American West along with timber shortages in the East converged with ever-widening impact on the pine forests of the Great Lakes states. Over the next 30 years, lumbering became a full-fledged enterprise in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Newly formed lumbering corporations bought up huge tracts of pineland and set about systematically cutting the trees. Both the colonists and the later industrialists saw timber as a commodity, but the latter group adopted a far more thorough and calculating approach to removing trees. In this sense, what happened between 1860 and 1890 represented a significant break with the past. No longer were farmers in search of extra income the main source for shingles, firewood, and other wood products. By the 1870s, farmers and city dwellers alike purchased forest products from large manufacturing companies located in the Great Lakes states rather than chopping wood themselves or buying it locally.

The commercialization of lumbering was in part the product of technological change. The early, thick saw blades tended to waste a large quantity of wood, with perhaps as much as a third of the log left behind on the floor as sawdust or scrap. In the 1870s, however, the British-invented band saw, with its thinner blade, became standard issue in the Great Lakes states' lumber factories. Meanwhile, the rise of steam-powered mills streamlined production by allowing for the more efficient, centralized, and continuous cutting of lumber. Steam helped to automate a variety of tasks, from cutting to the carrying away of waste. Mills also employed steam to heat log ponds, preventing them from freezing and making possible year-round lumber production.

For industrial lumbering to succeed, a way had to be found to neutralize the effects of the seasons on production. Traditionally, cutting took place in the winter, when snow and ice made it easier to drag logs on sleds or sleighs to the banks of streams. Once the streams and lakes thawed, workers rafted the logs to mills, where they were cut into lumber in the summer. If nature did not cooperate—if the winter proved dry and warm, if the spring thaw was delayed—production would suffer. To counter the effects of climate on lumber production, loggers experimented with a variety of techniques for transporting trees out of the woods. In the 1870s, loggers in the Great Lakes states began sprinkling water on sleigh roads, giving them an artificial ice coating to facilitate travel. The ice reduced the friction and allowed workers to move larger and heavier loads.

But all the sprinkling in the world would not save a logger from the threat of a warm winter. Without snow the sleigh roads turned to mud. In the 1870s, a set of snowless winters left lumber companies to ponder ways of liberating themselves from the seasons. Railroads were one possibility. At first, the remoteness of the pine forests discouraged common carriers from laying track. But increasing lumber prices in the late 1870s combined with periodic warm, dry winters compelled loggers to turn to iron rails. By 1887, 89 logging railroads crisscrossed Michigan, transforming logging from a winter activity into a year-round one.

Once the logs arrived at a river, the trip downstream to a mill could be a long and tortuous one. Logjams (buildups of logs that prevent logs from moving downstream) were common—at times stretching for 10 miles—and became even more frequent as pressure on the northern Midwest pinelands increased in the 1860s. To help keep the logs moving efficiently, barriers called booms (essentially a chain of floating logs) were constructed to control the direction of the timber. By the 1870s, lumber companies existed in all the major logging areas of the northern Midwest.

1. The word ''durable'' in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. readily available

B. long lasting

C. dense

D. flexible

关联段落 paragraph 1

2. According to paragraph 1, all of the following characteristics of pine made it a desirable material for building in nineteenth-century America EXCEPT:

A. It was long lasting.

B. It was relatively easy to transport.

C. Its softness made it easy to work with.

D. It produced buildings that were especially attractive.

关联段落 paragraph 1

3. The word ''commodity" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. product

B. problem

C. opportunity

D. advantage

关联段落 paragraph 2

4. What can be inferred from paragraph 2 about timber in America before the year 1860?

A. Farmers of the American West earned most of their income by selling timber to newly arrived settlers.

B. Timber came primarily from farmers who wished to supplement their income.

C. Timber was much more expensive before the year 1860 because it was less readily available.

D. Timber came primarily from large manufacturing companies in the East.

关联段落 paragraph 2

5. Why does the author discuss the "British-invented band saw"?

A. To give an example of how steam power led to technological advancements

B. To help explain how the thickness of a saw blade determines how much wood is wasted

C. To explain how competition with other countries benefited the American lumber industry

D. To illustrate the impact of new technology on the lumber industry

关联段落 paragraph 3

6. The phrase allowing for "allowing for" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. encouraging

B. introducing

C. making possible

D. emphasizing

关联段落 paragraph 3

7. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as resulting from the use of steam in the lumber industry EXCEPT:

A. Work became centralized, and many tasks were automated.

B. Lumber could be produced more efficiently and on a larger scale.

C. Waste materials could be re-used as fuel to power the lumber mills.

D. Lumber production could continue throughout the cold winter months.

关联段落 paragraph 3

8. The word "facilitate" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. expand

B. ease

C. transform

D. permit

关联段落 paragraph 4

9. According to paragraph 4, how could a warm, dry winter interfere with lumber production?

A. Certain trees would become dry and yield low-quality lumber.

B. There would not be enough water in streams and lakes to raft the logs to mills.

C. It would be more difficult to transport logs to streams and lakes.

D. Rivers would not be full enough in the spring to power mills.

关联段落 paragraph 4

10. The word "remoteness" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. decline

B. density

C. size

D. isolation

关联段落 paragraph 5

11. In paragraph 5, why does the author include the information that 89 logging railroads crisscrossed Michigan by 1887?

A. To argue that Michigan had replaced other Great Lakes states as the center of the lumbering industry

B. To provide evidence of the growing importance of logging railroads to the lumbering industry

C. To support the claim that Michigan winters had become more severe in the late 1800s than they had been earlier

D. To challenge the idea that climate discouraged the laying of track

关联段落 paragraph 5

12. According to paragraph 6, the construction of booms benefited the logging industry by

A. reducing the pressures placed on the northern Midwest pinelands in the 1860s

B. reducing the length of the downstream trip to a mill by as much as 10 miles

C. increasing the number of logs that could be floated down a river at a single time

D. allowing logs to move downstream more quickly and easily

关联段落 paragraph 6

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Some sleighs were capable of carrying over 100 tons worth of timber.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

TPO54托福阅读Passage1原文与真题解析图2

关联段落 paragraph 4

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT

关联全篇

Increasing demands for timber in nineteenth-century America transformed lumbering in the Great Lakes region.

A.During the nineteenth century, lumbering became a large-scale industry controlled by manufacturing companies rather than a local enterprise controlled by farmers.

B.Technological advances, including the use of steam power, led to increased productivity, efficiency, and commercialization of the lumbering industry.

controlled by farmers.

F.New methods for transporting logs to mills helped transform lumbering from a seasonal activity to a year-round activity.

controlled by farmers.

Answer Choices

A.During the nineteenth century, lumbering became a large-scale industry controlled by manufacturing companies rather than a local enterprise controlled by farmers.D.After 1860 farmers continued to be the main suppliers of new timber, but lumbering companies took over its transport and manufacture into wood products.

B.Technological advances, including the use of steam power, led to increased productivity, efficiency, and commercialization of the lumbering industry.E.The invention of new technology, such as band saws, allowed American lumbering companies to make a profit by exporting surplus lumber to Britain and other countries.

C.Seasonal changes and severe winters made the development and laying of track for logging railroads slow and difficult.

F.New methods for transporting logs to mills helped transform lumbering from a seasonal activity to a year-round activity.

Passage 1真题解析

1.

答案:B

题型:词汇题

解析:本题为词汇题。“durable”的意思是“持久的,耐用的”,词汇所在句子“It is durable and strong, yet soft enough to be easily worked with even the simplest of hand tools. ”的意思是“它耐用而坚固,却又足够软到即使最简单的手工工具也能轻易工作。”

A选项:readily available意思是“一应俱全, 随手可得”,排除。

B选项:long lasting意思是“长久的,持久的”,意思最为贴近,故为正确答案。

C选项:dense意思是“稠密的”,排除。

D选项:flexible的意思是“灵活的”,排除

2.

答案:D

题型:否定事实信息题

解析:本题为否定事实信息题。重点不能漏看EXCEPT,选的是文中未提及项。根据题干中的定位词“desirable”我们定位到文中这句话“Pine was especially attractive for building purposes.”而这句话之后的内容暗示了是本题的关键信息,“It is durable and strong, yet soft enough to be easily worked with even the simplest of hand tools. It also floats nicely on water, which allowed it to be transported to distant markets across the nation.”从句子中提到的信息来排除选项。

A选项:It was long lasting,对应durable,所以排除

B选项:It was relatively easy to transport,对应 floats nicely on water,可得知由水路运输相对便捷,所以也排除

C选项:Its softness made it easy to work with,对应了 easily worked,排除

D选项:It produced buildings that were especially attractive,意思是“用松木建造的建筑十分有吸引力”同样的attractive一词混淆原文中的“松木在建筑用途上十分受欢迎”,曲解原意,故D为答案。

3.

答案:A

题型:词汇题

解析:本题为词汇题。“commodity”的意思是“货物”,词汇所在句子“Both the colonists and the later industrialists saw timber as a commodity, but the latter group adopted a far more thorough and calculating approach to removing trees.”的意思是“殖民者与之后的工业家都把木材看作是货物,但之后的团体采取了一个更周密精明的方法来转移走树木”。

A选项:product意思是“产品”,意思最为贴近,故为正确答案。

B选项:problem意思是“问题”,排除。

C选项:opportunity意思是“机会”,排除。

D选项:advantage的意思是“优点”,排除。

4.

答案:B

题型:推理题

解析:本题为推理题。根据题干很难准确定位,故由选项到原文中找是否有对应句子。

A选项关键词“farmers’ income”定位到“No longer were farmers in search of extra income the main source for shingles, firewood, and other wood products. ”,可以知道farmers在1860之前需要靠木产品来增加收入,并未提到newly arrived settlers,多了原文没有的信息,故排除。

B选项:Timber came primarily from farmers who wished to supplement their income. 依旧可以对应A句的原文,翻译为“到1870年代,农民不再寻找额外收入,这是木瓦、木柴和其他木制品的主要来源。”可以推断出木材在1870前主要来源于农民想要增加自己的收入 。故B为正确选项。

C选项:Timber was much more expensive before the year 1860 because it was less readily available. 原文中没有提到木材在1860年代前的价格,也没有说其不好获得。故排除。

D选项:Timber came primarily from large manufacturing companies in the East. 原文中没有提及,且与B选项冲突,因为已经可推断出木材在1870前主要来源于农民想要增加自己的收入,因而D是错的。

5.

答案:D

题型:功能目的题

解析:此题为功能目的题,由British-invented band saw,定位到 In the 1870s, however, the British-invented band saw, with its thinner blade, became standard issue in the Great Lakes states' lumber factories. 说了这种锯子有着更薄的刀刃,并成为了当时工厂的标配,现在来看选项。

A: To give an example of how steam power led to technological advancements,选项中的steam power并不是 British-invented band saw所具备的,它的特性是更薄的刀刃,而后文的meanwhile之后所说的工厂才具有steam power的性质,该选项为错误信息,故排除。

B: To help explain how the thickness of a saw blade determines how much wood is wasted,原文提出这把锯子并不是为了说明粗锯子会浪费木头,该段开头句说明了“伐木业的商品化是科技变化的产物”故这段主要想表明的因是科技使得伐木业得到进步,这种锯子也是科技进步而被发明出来的,后成为工厂标配,说明了科技的重要性,所以该选项错误。

C: To explain how competition with other countries benefited the American lumber industry 理解错误,重点并非是British而是这种更薄刀刃的锯子,曲解了原文意思,也与段落主旨“科技改变伐木业”无关,故排除。

D: To illustrate the impact of new technology on the lumber industry 段落的中心“科技改变伐木业”与选项“新科技对伐木业的重要性”对应,故可得出D正确。

6.

答案:A

题型:词汇题

解析:本题为词汇题。“allowing for”的意思是“允许”,词汇所在句子“Meanwhile, the rise of steam-powered mills streamlined production by allowing for the more efficient, centralized, and continuous cutting of lumber.”的意思是“同时,随着蒸汽工厂的兴起,流线型产品能使伐木更有效率,集中,连续不断”

A选项:encouraging意思是“鼓励”,排除。

B选项:introducing意思是“介绍”,排除。

C选项:making possible意思是“使……可能”,意思最为贴近,故为正确答案。

D选项:emphasizing的意思是“强调”,排除。

7.

答案:C

题型:否定事实信息题

解析:根据“resulting from the use of steam in lumber”可定位到这一段:streamlined production by allowing for the more efficient, centralized, and continuous cutting of lumber. Steam helped to automate a variety of tasks, from cutting to the carrying away of waste. Mills also employed steam to heat log ponds, preventing them from freezing and making possible year-round lumber production.

A选项对应了centralized和automated,有提及,故排除。

B选项对应了efficient和“使得伐木变为全年制”,即表示on a larger scale,故排除。

C选项说废弃的材料可称为工厂燃料,并未提及到这一信息,故C是答案。

D选项对应了heat log ponds 和prevent from freezing,故排除。

8.

答案:B

题型:词汇题

解析:本题为词汇题。“facilitate”的意思是“使容易”,词汇所在句子“In the 1870s, loggers in the Great Lakes states began sprinkling water on sleigh roads, giving them an artificial ice coating to facilitate travel”的意思是在1870年代,工人们在五大湖开始在滑雪道上洒水,给路铺上一层人工雪来使运输便利”。

A选项:expand意思是“扩张”,排除。

B选项:ease意思是“减轻,使容易”,意思最为贴近,故为正确答案。

C选项:transform意思是“转变”,排除。

D选项:permit的意思是“许可”,排除。

9.

答案:C

题型:事实信息题

解析:本题为事实信息题。由“warm,dry winter interfere ”定位到“If nature did not cooperate—if the winter proved dry and warm, if the spring thaw was delayed—production would suffer. To counter the effects of climate on lumber production, loggers experimented with a variety of techniques for transporting trees out of the woods .”说明主要影响的是transporting trees out of the woods,对应了C选项的“difficult transport”。

A选项原文没说树木变干,排除。

B选项错误,冬天是靠冰上雪橇来运输的,并不是水不够。

D选项错误,mill不是靠river为动力的,原文未提及。

10.

答案:D

题型:词汇题

解析:本题为词汇题。“remoteness”由remote是偏远的意思可以得出remoteness是偏远的名词,词汇所在句子“At first, the remoteness of the pine forests discouraged common carriers from laying track.”翻译成“一开始,松树林的偏僻阻拦了普通运送者们铺设轨道“。

A选项decline的意思是“下降”,排除。

B选项density的意思是“密度”,排除

C选项size的意思是“尺码”,排除。

D选项isolation的意思是“隔离”,与原义接近,故为答案。

11.

答案:B

题型:功能目的题

解析:题目问作者提到原木输送铁路的原因,全段讲述了因为暖干冬天的影响,人们终于迫于气候原因建立了这样的铁路,说明了铁路是必不可少的,否则将无法输送原木。

A选项说为了证明密歇根取代五大湖称为伐木工业中心,错误,运输的目的地便是五大湖,建立铁路是因为无法运输,并非要取代五大湖。

B选项说了证明了铁路对于伐木工业日益重要,与原文所想表达的意义相似,故正确。

C选项说是说明了密歇根冬天更加严峻,错误,中心意义错误 。

D选项说反驳了气候阻碍铺铁路,逻辑错误,是因为气候所以才要铺铁路。

12.

答案:D

题型:事实信息题

解析:由“booms benefit”定位到“To help keep the logs moving efficiently, barriers called booms (essentially a chain of floating logs) were constructed to control the direction of the timber.题目问如何有益于伐木业,那么我们来看选项:

A选项:减轻松木地的压力,错误。

B选项:减少10公里到达工厂的长度,错误。

C选项:增加原木一次可以漂浮在河里的数量,错误。

D选项:允许原木顺流而下更快捷,对应了选段“moving efficiently”,所以是正确答案。

13.

答案:C

题型:句子插入题

解析:本题为句子插入题。首先,从词汇线索来看,这句句子中“some sleighs”说明前段应提到sleighs,冰,重量等。这句话翻译为“有些雪橇可以承载超过100吨价值的木材”。

所以我们回到文中找相关的句子。

首先一方块前的意思是“一旦溪流湖水解冻……”显然和sleighs无关,此时应直接靠原木漂浮来运输。

二方块说了如果天气不好会怎么怎么样,提到了伐木工人用了许多办法来运输,而题目给出的锯子于此处不符。

第三个方块前说了工人尝试用水来造人工冰,这里也没有提到运输和sleigh。

第四个方块前说,这些冰使得能承载更多重量,提到了关键词“重量”因而将锯子填入第四个,也就是D选项,前后表达了人工冰使得sleighs可以承载更多重量,甚至超过100 tons。

14.

答案:ABF

题型:总结题

解析:本文为总结题。我们依次分析选项找出正确答案:

所给提示意思为:在19世纪木材运输的需求增加。

A选项对应文章第二段,文中说“farmers and city dwellers alike purchased forest products from large manufacturing companies located in the Great Lakes states rather than chopping wood themselves or buying it locally.” 说明了manufacturing companies 取代了当地个人业,A选项正确。

B选项对应文章第3段。文章提到 “streamlined production by allowing for the more efficient, centralized, and continuous cutting of lumber.”并提及了蒸汽工厂,新型锯子等,符合B选项。

C选项说季节变化和严峻冬天使发展和铺铁路变得又慢又困难,实际上是因为冬天不够严寒而导致需要铺铁路,所以是逻辑错误,因而不选。

D选项说1860年后农民任然是新木材的主要供应商,但其实是不对的,原文说“No longer were farmers in search of extra income the main source for shingles, firewood, and other wood products. BBy the 1870s, farmers and city dwellers alike purchased forest products from large manufacturing companies located in the Great Lakes states rather than chopping wood themselves or buying it locally.”说明农民不再是供应商,而全权交给了企业,所以D错误。

E选项原文中跟没提到与国外的木材贸易,只是根据其他国家的新科技工具随意推测,所以是错的。

F选项对应第五段,对应原文“By 1887, 89 logging railroads crisscrossed Michigan, transforming logging from a winter activity into a year-round one.”说明了这种新的运输方式不再使得伐木收到季节限制,符合原文,故F对。

以上就是关于TPO54托福阅读Passage1的阅读原文、真题与解析的内容分享,我们可以看到功能目的题考察频次有所增加,而事实信息题和词汇题仍然占据考察主流,我们在利用TPO真题备考过程中,一定要多反思多总结,融会贯通提升实力。

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