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TPO53托福听力Lecture1原文题目及解析

2018年04月13日13:16 来源:小站整理
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TPO53托福听力Lecture1原文题目及解析图1


TPO53托福听力Lecture1原文文本


Two Kinds Of Pollution

Listen to part of a lecture in an environmental science class.

Professor: The Chesapeake Bay on the east coast of United States is huge. The largest estuary in the U.S., and it’s very important to local economies.

But like many of the world’s waterways, the Chesapeake is being polluted. And efforts to stop that from happening have not been entirely successful. And that’s partly because of the type of pollution affecting the Chesapeake which may not be what you might predict.

Um, first let’s mention that the sources of pollution are of two general types. And let’s begin with what’s known as point source pollution. Point source pollution has an identifiable source and you can find the specific point where say one particular pipe is dumping pollutants into the bay. And then treat the water right there where the pollution's coming from.

And that’s what's happened over the past thirty years or so. Modifications have been made in factories and sewage treatment plants to treat polluted water before it’s released into public waterways. But there’s also something we call non-point source pollution.

Nowadays the most serious pollution threat doesn’t come from any particularsource like a factory or sewage treatment plant, but originates from many sources over a large area. And this non-point source pollution is a challenge to deal with because it doesn’t just enter the bay through one pipe. You can’t identify precisely where it’s coming from.

And to be specific, the biggest problem now facing the Chesapeake Bay is due not to toxins but to nutrients contained in chemical fertilizers used on farms all over the region. These nutrients like phosphorus and especially nitrogen wash away what we call agricultural runoff. That’s when water from a hard rain or from melting snow carries these chemicals down to streams and into the bay.

And there they stimulate the explosive growth of algae and that uses up much of the oxygen in the water, oxygen that fish and other aquatic organisms need to stay alive. So since there is no single place you can treat the runoff before it reaches the bay, any efforts to reduce this non-point source pollution generally need to be aimed at keeping pollution out of the streams in the first place.

But before we go into that, let’s look at the role of nitrogen fertilizer in modern farming. Until about sixty years ago, before a great increase in industrialization, this wasn’t a problem. In the past, farmers use natural fertilizers, and rotated crops so that in addition to commercial food crops like corn and wheat, they might plant legumes like alfalfa and clover for animal feed.

But these legumes also enriched the soil by converting nitrogen in the atmosphere into nitrates, a form of nitrogen that crops like wheat or corn could use as nutrient. And these and other cover crops, planted to hold the soil after the wheat or corn was harvested. They stored much of the surplus nitrogenduring the time of the year when the runoff tended to be the greatest.

But farming practices changed as farmers came under pressure to use more and more chemical fertilizer in order to increase crop production on the same amount of land. But more isn’t always better, at least in terms of chemical fertilizer in the environment. And along the way, farmers switch from legumes to animal feeds more suited to intensive large scale animal production.

And the excess nitrogen once trapped by these cover crops either washed away in the next big rain or went down into the groundwater and either way eventually ended up in the streams and the bay, and that as we said means more algae in the water and less oxygen for the fish and other aquatic life to breathe.

So what’s being done? Well, two things.

First, after the main crops are harvested, more farmers are planting cover crops again. Other kinds like rye and barley that hold the nitrogen and keep it from washing out of the soil during the months when that most likely to occur. And the second strategy is to plant buffer zones at the edges of streams. Not crops but natural areas, trees. The roots of these trees can absorb the excess nitrogen in the runoff before it reaches the streams. Farmers sometimes object to letting trees grow on land where they might otherwise be cultivating crops. But there’s a government program that compensates them, that pays them for creating these buffer zones between their fields and the streams that eventually feed into bays like the Chesapeake and it’s beginning to show some success.

TPO53托福听力Lecture1题目

Question 1 of 6

What is the lecture mainly about?

A. The difference between point source and nonpoint source pollution

B. The source and treatment of a serious type of pollution affecting the Chesapeake Bay

C. The causes for the large decrease in algae in the Chesapeake Bay

D. The development of farming methods during the past century

Question 2 of 6

What is one of the reasons that the professor mentions pollution that comes from a pipe?

A. To compare point source pollution with nonpoint source pollution

B. To blame factories and sewage treatment plants for producing most water pollution

C. To demonstrate that agricultural runoff is a point source pollutant

D. To suggest new methods that may someday begin to reduce water pollution

Question 3 of 6

According to the professor, why has it been difficult for fish and many other organisms to live in the Chesapeake Bay?

A. Toxic chemicals in the water have poisoned many of them.

B. Runoff from farmland has made the water very muddy.

C. Water flow from streams has been unreliable.

D. Oxygen levels in the water have been reduced.

Question 4 of 6

What is the professor's attitude about the use of chemical fertilizer?

A. She is surprised that some farmers have stopped using it.

B. She is convinced that its use should be increased substantially.

C. She worries that farmers may be using too much of it.

D. She regrets that it was not more useful for increasing crop production.

Question 5 of 6

What two practices does the professor suggest for reducing the amount of nitrogen that enters a bay such as the Chesapeake?

Click on 2 answers

A. Planting trees along the sides of streams

B. Building water treatment facilities where streams enter the bay

C. Planting cover crops that take up excess nitrogen in the soil

D. Letting farm animals graze in areas near streams and the bay

Question 6 of 6

According to the professor, why were farmers reluctant to create buffer zones near streams?

A. They were not convinced that buffer zones effectively control pollution.

B. They feared that creating buffer zones might decrease farm income.

C. Government approval for creating buffer zones was at first difficult to obtain.

D. Planting trees was much more expensive than planting the usual crops.

TPO53托福听力Lecture1答案解析

正确答案:B

题目解析:本题定位到原文:But like many of world’s waterways, the Chesapeake is being polluted. Uh, first let’s mention that the sources of pollution are two generally types. 此处原文的大意是:但是像许多世界性水路一样,切萨皮克正在被污染。 嗯,首先让我们提到污染的来源主要有两类。 题干问的是讲座的大意。 选项A的意思是定点污染和不定点污染的区别,选项B的意思是影响Chesapeake海湾的污染及其应对措施,选项C的意思是海湾海藻大量减少的原因,选项D的意思是过去一个世纪里的农业方法的发展。选项B符合原文意思,其余三个选项均不合适。

正确答案:A

题目解析:本题定位到原文:Point source pollution has an identifiable source and you can find this specific point where say one particular pipe is dumping pollutants into the bay. 此处原文的大意是:点源污染有一个明显的来源而且你能发现这个特定的地点,比如说一个地方有一个特殊的管子把垃圾倾倒到河湾中。 题干问的是为什么教授要提到从管子里流出的污染。 选项A的意思是为了对比非定点污染,选项B的意思是为了责怪工厂和污水处理制造了废水,选项C的意思是为了说明农业废水是定点污染源,选项D的意思是为了说明减少水污染的新方法。选项A符合原文意思,其余三个选项均不合适。

正确答案:D

题目解析:本题定位到原文:And there they stimulate the explosive growth of algae and that uses much of the oxygen in the water oxygen that fish and other aquatic organisms need to stay alive. 此处原文的大意是:而且在那里他们激发了海藻的爆发式的生长,那样使用了大量水中的氧气,这些氧气是鱼和其它水生有机物保持存活需要的。 题干问的是为什么鱼类和其他有机体在海湾难以生存。 选项A的意思是有毒物质毒害了它们,选项B的意思是农田里排出的水让水源很浑浊,选项C的意思是溪水不可靠,选项D的意思是水里含氧量下降。选项D符合原文意思,其余三个选项均不合适。

正确答案:C

题目解析:本题定位到原文:But farming practices changed as farmers came under pressure to use more and more chemical fertilizer in order to increase crop production on the same amount of land. But more isn’t always better at least in terms of chemical fertilizer in the environment. 此处原文的大意是:但是农业活动改变了,因为农民在压力下使用越来越多的化肥为了增加相同数量土地上的作物产量。但是更多不是总是意味着更好,至少从在环境中存在的化学肥料上来说。 题干问的是教授对于化学养料的态度。 选项A的意思是她很惊奇很多农民不用了,选项B的意思是她觉得其用量会大大增加,选项C的意思是她担心农民用得太多,选项D的意思是她后悔这种物质并不能更多地帮助农作物增产。选项C符合原文意思,其余三个选项均不合适。

正确答案:AC

题目解析:本题定位到原文:So what’s being done? Well, two things. First, after the main crops are harvested, more farmers are planting cover crops again. Other kinds like rye and barley that hold the nitrogen and keep it from washing out of the soil during the month when that most likely to occur. And the second strategy is to plant buffer zones at the edges of streams. Not crops but natural areas, trees. The roots of these trees can absorb the excess nitrogen runoff before it reaches the streams. 此处原文的大意是:所以现在做了什么?有两件事。在主要作物丰收后,更多农民又开始种植覆盖作物。其他种类像黑麦和大麦能够固定氮并防止氮在那些最有可能出现流失情况的月份中从土壤中流失。第二个策略是在溪流的边上种植缓冲区,不是作物而是自然的地方种树木。在径流到达溪水之前,树木的根能够存下过多的含氮的径流。 题干问的是为了降低氮含量,教授建议做哪些事情。 选项A的意思是在溪边种树,选项B的意思是在溪流流入海湾的时候建立水源净化设施,选项C的意思是种农作物,吸收土壤中过多的氮,选项D的意思是让农场家畜在溪流和海湾边吃草。选项AC符合原文意思,其余2个选项均不合适。

正确答案:B

题目解析:本题定位到原文:Farmers sometimes object to letting trees grow on land where they might otherwise be cultivating crops. But there’s a government program that compensates them that pays them for creating these buffer zones between their fields and the streams that eventually feed into bays like the Chesapeake and it’s beginning to show some success. 此处原文的大意是:农民们有时候反对在陆地上种树,否则他们可以在这些地方种植农作物。但是有一个政府项目会弥补他们,付钱给他们如果在他们的土地和最终流向像切萨皮克湾这样的海湾之间创造缓冲区,而且这开始表现出一些成功。 题干问的是为什么农民对于缓冲区比较抵触。 选项A的意思是他们不相信缓冲区可以有效控制污染,选项B的意思是他们害怕创造缓冲区会降低农业收入,选项C的意思是政府建立缓冲区的倡议不好实现,选项D的意思是种树比种寻常作物要贵。选项B符合原文意思,其余三个选项均不合适。

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