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【小站原创】TPO52托福阅读Passage2文本+题目+答案解析

2018年04月12日10:57 来源:小站整理
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摘要:TPO托福模考软件是目前市面上最好用的托福备考资料了,托福考生一般都会拿TPO来进行托福考试的练习。这里小编将为大家整理了完整理了TPO52托福阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析,帮助大家更好的进行托福阅读备考。

现在大家在进行托福备考时TPO托福模考软件相信是大家用的最多的工具了,对于托福成绩的提升是非常有帮助的。托福听力可以说是整个托福考试当中比较重要的一个部分,如何利用现有资料TPO模考软件来提升大家的托福成绩呢?今天小编在这里整理了TPO52托福阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析来分享给大家,希望对大家托福听力备考有帮助。

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【小站原创】TPO52托福阅读Passage2文本+题目+答案解析图1

TPO52托福阅读Passage2原文文本

Natufian Culture

In the archaeological record of the Natufian period, from about 12,500 to 10,200 years ago, in the part of the Middle East known as the Levant—roughly east of the Mediterranean and north of the Arabian Peninsula—we see clear evidence of agricultural origins. The stone tools of the Natufians included many sickle-shaped cutting blades that show a pattern of wear characteristic of cereal harvesting. Also, querns (hand mills) and other stone tools used for processing grain occur in abundance at Natufian sites, and many such tools show signs of long, intensive use. Along with the sickle blades are many grinding stones, primarily mortars and pestles of limestone or basalt. There is also evidence that these heavy grinding stones were transported over long distances, more than 30 kilometers in some cases, and this is not something known to have been done by people of preceding periods. Fishhooks and weights for sinking fishing nets attest to the growing importance of fish in the diet in some areas. Stone vessels indicate an increased need for containers, but there is no evidence of Natufian clay working or pottery. Studies of the teeth of Natufians also strongly suggest that these people specialized in collecting cereals and may have been cultivating them and in the process of domesticating them, but they were also still hunter-foragers who intensively hunted gazelle and deer in more lush areas and wild goats and equids in more arid zones.

The Natufians had a different settlement pattern from that of their predecessors. Some of their base camps were far larger (over 1,000 square meters) than any of those belonging to earlier periods, and they may have lived in some of these camps for half the year or even more. In some of the camps, people made foundations and other architectural elements out of limestone blocks. Trade in shell, obsidian, and other commodities seems to have been on the rise, and anthropologists suspect that the exchange of perishables (such as skins, foodstuffs) and salt was also on the increase. With the growing importance of wild cereals in the diet, salt probably became for the first time a near necessity: people who eat a lot of meat get many essential salts from this diet, but diets based on cereals can be deficient in salts. Salt was probably also important as a food preservative in early villages.

As always, there is more to a major cultural change than simply a shift in economics. The Natufians made (and presumably wore) beads and pendants in many materials, including gemstones and marine shells that had to be imported, and it is possible that this ornamentation actually reflects a growing sense of ethnic identity and perhaps some differences in personal and group status. Cleverly carved figurines of animals, women, and other subjects occur in many sites, and Natufian period cave paintings have been found in Anatolia, Syria, and Iran. {[3|27|A]} More than 400 Natufian burials have been found, most of them simple graves set in house floors. {[3|27|B]} As archaeologist Belfer-Cohen notes, these burials may reflect an ancestor cult and a growing sense of community emotional ties and attachment to a particular place, and toward the end of the Natufian period, people in this area were making a strict separation between living quarters and burial grounds. {[3|27|C]} In contrast with the Pleistocene cultures of the Levant, Natufian culture appears to have experienced considerable social change.{[3|27|D]}

The question of why the Natufians differed from their predecessors in these and other ways and why they made these first steps toward farming as a way of life remains unclear. There were climate changes, of course, and growing aridity and rising population densities may have forced them to intensify the exploitation of cereals, which in turn might have stimulated the development of sickles and other tools and the permanent communities that make agriculture efficient. But precisely how these factors interacted with others at play is poorly understood.

TPO52托福阅读Passage2题目

1.All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 1 as evidence that the Natufians may have engaged in the growing and processing of cereals and grains EXCEPT

tools with a specific pattern of wear

the widespread presence of grinding stones

the presence of clay containers

results from the analysis of Natufian teeth

2.Why does the author say that "many such tools show signs of long, intensive use" in connection with Natufian agriculture?

To argue that the Natufian people consumed grains long before they included fish in their diet

To suggest that Natufian people could not replace their tools frequently because they had to travel very long distances to find grinding stones

To illustrate the sophistication of the Natufians in the design of stone tools

To support the claim that the archaeological record of the Natufian period shows clear evidence of agricultural origins

3.The phrase "attest to" in the passage is closest in meaning to

symbolize

provide evidence of

are predictive of

coincide with

4.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Studies of the teeth of Natufians suggest the importance of cereals in their culture although they still hunted and foraged.

The Natufians specialized in collecting cereals and may have been in the process of domesticating certain animals.

Studies of the teeth of Natufians suggest that these people became hunter-foragers after they began domesticating cereals.

The Natufians’ diet consisted mostly of cereals and lacked sufficient meat.

5.Paragraph 2 suggests that compared with their predecessors, the Natufians

had smaller camps

had more permanent settlements

engaged in trade less often

had more meat in their diets

6.The phrase "be deficient in" in the passage is closest in meaning to

consist mainly of

be balanced by

not have enough

have adequate

7.The word "preservative" in the passage is closest in meaning to

something that adds flavor to food

something that adds nutritional value to food

something that keeps food fresh

something that increases the trade value of food

8.According to paragraph 2, the abundance of wild cereals in the Natufian diet probably meant that the Natufians

had to move their settlements more often

needed to supplement their diets with salt

found it easy to store their food supplies

no longer needed meat to provide essential minerals

9.The word “reflects" in the passage is closest in meaning to

indicates

causes

hides

prevents

10.The word "ties" in the passage is closest in meaning to

values

experiences

influences

connections

11.All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as part of the cultural change experienced by the Natufians EXCEPT:

Technological advances

Personal ornamentation

Cave painting

Community burial sites

12.According to paragraph 4, which of the following may have helped push the Natufians toward farming as a way of life?

At the same time as the Natufian population was increasing, the climate was becoming less hospitable.

The development of sickles and other tools made it possible for Natufians to exploit new kinds of cereals.

The climate changed during the Natufian period and produced conditions favorable to growing cereals.

Increasing competition from neighboring populations may have forced Natufians to grow cereals more intensively.

13.Look at the four squares [▇] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Further evidence of an evolving cultural complexity comes from Natufian burials.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [▇] to add the sentence to the passage.

14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

The Natufians differed from their predecessors in many ways——most significantly, in their move toward agriculture.

Answer Choices

The Natufians used tools to collect and process food, but their lack of containers suggests that they rarely had excess food to store.

The increase in salt in the Natufians' diet suggests that meat was becoming harder to find, perhaps because of climate change.

The Natufians engaged in trade and lived in large camps in which they sometimes built permanent structures.

Natufian culture developed somewhat differently in different regions, in part because of differences in the types and amount of food available from place to place.

Although their diet included meat from hunting, extensive evidence suggests that the Natufians consumed a lot of cereals and may even have been cultivating them.

Natufian art, personal ornamentation, and burial sites suggest cultural changes involving an increasing sense of ethnic identity and perhaps an ancestor cult."

TPO52托福阅读Passage2解析

1、答案:C

题型:选非

解析:本题为否定事实信息题,题目问以下哪一项不是纳图夫人种植和加工谷物的证据?下面我们逐一来看选项:

A选项:有特殊磨损痕迹的工具。根据关键词“pattern of wear”,定位至第一段第2句“The stone tools of the Natufians included many sickle-shaped cutting blades that show a pattern of wear characteristic of cereal harvesting.”很明显这是一个纳图夫人加工谷物的证据,故A选项排除。

B选项:研磨石的大量出现。根据关键词“grinding stones”定位至第一段第4句“Along with the sickle blades are many grinding stones, primarily mortars and pestles of limestone or basalt.”这句话提到了研磨石的出现,它们也能证明纳图夫人用加工谷物,故B选项排除。

C选项:黏土容器的出现。根据关键词“clay containers”定位到这句话“……but there is no evidence of Natufian clay working or pottery.”说明纳图夫人并没有用黏土或陶土制作器皿。故C选项与原文矛盾,为正确答案。

D选项:对纳图夫人牙齿的分析结果。根据关键词“teeth”定位到这句话“Studies of the teeth of Natufians also strongly suggest that these people specialized in collecting cereals and may have been cultivating them and in the process of domesticating them……”这句话能充分说明牙齿是纳图夫人种植和加工谷物的证据,故D选项排除。

2、答案:D

题型:目的

解析:本题为修辞目的题。题目问,为什么作者会提到“这些工具显示出了长期、集约利用的痕迹。”?首先我们来看第一段的结构,第一段作者首先提出了“we see clear evidence of agricultural origins.”的观点,而后文中所提到的镰刀状刀片磨损的痕迹、手推石磨、研磨石等,都是证明纳图夫人种植和加工谷物的证据。所以这里作者提到这些石器显示出了长期、集约利用的痕迹,很明显是为了说明纳图夫时期的考古学记录中,可以清晰地看到农业起源的证据,对应D选项,所以D选项为正确答案。

A选项:表明在纳图夫人食用谷物远远早于他们食用鱼类。根据关键词“fish”定位到这句话“Fishhooks and weights for sinking fishing nets attest to the growing importance of fish in the diet in some areas.”但是鱼钩和砝码与并不是题干这句话中“such tools”所指的工具,因此A选项与题意无关。

B选项:说明纳图夫人不经常更换他们的工具,因为他们要走很远的距离去寻找研磨石。定位到这一句“There is also evidence that these heavy grinding stones were transported over long distances, more than 30 kilometers in some cases, and this is not something known to have been done by people of preceding periods.”这句话是为了说明从很远的地方将研磨石运回是早期人类做不到的事情。但这句话并不是纳图夫人不经常更换他们工具,所以“长期、集约利用”这些石器的原因。原文没有显示这两者间存在因果关系。

C选项:说明纳图夫人制造的石器非常的精致。错误,因为文中没有提到这一点。

3、答案:B

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“attest to”的意思是“证实;证明”。词汇所在句“Fishhooks and weights for sinking fishing nets attest to the growing importance of fish in the diet in some areas.”的意思是“用于使渔网下沉的鱼钩和砝码证明鱼类在一些地区的饮食结构中变得越来越重要。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项:symbolize,意思是“象征”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项:provide evidence for,意思是“提供证据”,意思最接近,故为正确答案。

C选项:are predictive of,意思是“预测”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项:coincide with,意思是“与…一致”,意思不符,故排除。

4、答案:A

题型:句子简化

解析:本题为句子简化题。首先我们来看需要简化的这句句子,句子中有转折逻辑词“but”,整句句子的意思是“对纳图夫人牙齿的研究也强有力地表明这些人专门收集谷物并且可能会种植谷物,或正处于驯化作物的过程中,但是纳图夫人也仍然是狩猎者,他们会在一些植被更繁茂的地区集中猎杀羚羊营地要比和鹿,在较为干旱的地区猎杀野山羊和马。”下面来看选项:

A选项:对纳图夫人牙齿的研究证明谷物在他们的文化中很重要,虽然他们还是会以采集和狩猎为生。”A选项成分齐全,且逻辑关系符合原文,故A选项正确。

B选项:纳图夫人专门收集谷物,并有可能驯化某些动物。错误,因为文中只提到纳图夫人驯养作物,故B选项与原文不符。其次B选项还少了原句的主干成分“纳图夫人依然会采集和狩猎”,且缺少转折逻辑,故B选项排除。

C选项:对纳图夫人牙齿的研究说明他们在驯养谷物之后,就开始成为采集狩猎者。错误,因为根据文意可知,纳图夫人在驯养谷物之前就一直是采集狩猎者。且C选项缺少转折逻辑,故C选项排除。

D选项:纳图夫人的食物大部分是谷物,缺少足够的肉类。这句话本身不符合文意,因为文中说纳图夫人在种植谷物后“were also still hunter-foragers”,说明他们也会打猎。同样D选项也缺少转折逻辑,故排除。

5、答案:B

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。题目问纳图夫人和他们的祖先比起来,他们的特点是?

A:他们的营地更小。错误,根据关键词“camp”定位到第二段第2句“ Some of their base camps were far larger (over 1,000 square meters) than any of those belonging to earlier periods……”这句话说纳图夫人的营地要比以前的任何营地都大得多,故A选项排除。

B选项:他们的居住的时间更长。正确,同样定位到第二段第2句“……and they may have lived in some of these camps for half the year or even more.”说明他们会在营地住上半年或更久,故B选项为正确答案。

C选项:他们更少参与贸易。错误,根据关键词“trade”定位到第二段第4句“ Trade in shell, obsidian, and other commodities seems to have been on the rise……”这句说明纳图夫人越来越多地参与到贸易中,故与原文矛盾,C选项排除。

D选项:他们吃更多肉。错误,定位到这句话“With the growing importance of wild cereals in the diet, salt probably became for the first time a near necessity.”这里说明纳图夫文化中,野生谷物在日常饮食中的重要性日益增加,食盐可能第一次几乎成为一种必需品。所以纳图夫人吃的肉应该比之前少,而增加了谷物的摄入。所以D选项与原文矛盾,排除。

6、答案:C

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“be deficient in”的意思是“缺乏”。词汇所在句“people who eat a lot of meat get many essential salts from this diet, but diets based on cereals can be deficient in salts.”的意思是“吃很多肉的人可以从肉类中获取必要的盐分,但是以谷物为食的可能会导致盐分的缺乏。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项,consist mainly of,意思是“主要又……构成”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项,be balanced by,意思是“由……所平衡”,意思不符,故排除。

C选项,not have enough,意思是“不足”,意思符合,故为正确答案。

D选项,have adequate,意思是“足够”,意思正好相反,故排除。

7、答案:C

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“preservative”的意思是“防腐剂”。词汇所在句“Salt was probably also important as a food preservative in early villages.”的意思是“在早期的村庄里,盐可能是一种重要的食品防腐剂。”

下面我们来看选项:

A选项意思是给食物添加风味的东西,意思不符,故排除。

B选项意思是给食物增加营养价值的东西,意思不符,故排除。

C选项意思是能使食物保持新鲜的东西,意思符合故为正确答案。

D选项意思是能够增加食物贸易价值的东西,意思不符,故排除。

8、答案:B

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题,题目问纳图夫人饮食中充足的野生谷类说明了什么?根据关键词“wide cereal”定位到第二段倒数第2句话“With the growing importance of wild cereals in the diet, salt probably became for the first time a near necessity……can be deficient in salts.”所以,野生物类在饮食中重要性的增加,说明盐会成为生活的必需品,B选项正确。

A选项:他们需要更经常地移动他们的定居点。错误,因为原文并未提到该信息。

C选项:他们发现储存食物很方便。错误,因为原文中说的是“Salt was probably also important as a food preservative in early villages.”盐能够帮助储存食物,而野生谷类在饮食中的重要性增加和存储食物没有什么关系,故C选项排除。

D选项:他们不再需要肉类来提供必要的矿物质。错误,因为野生谷类在饮食中的重要性增加并不能说明纳图夫人不需要肉类,其次在第一段中原文有提到纳图夫人“were also still hunter-foragers”,故D选项排除。

9、答案:A

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“reflects”的意思是“反映;说明”。词汇所在句“……and it is possible that this ornamentation actually reflects a growing sense of ethnic identity and perhaps some differences in personal and group status.”的意思是“这些材料都需要进口才能获得,可能这些装饰品事实上反映了民族认同感的增强,或者反映了身份和族群地位上的一些不同。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项:indicates,意思是“指示;表明”,意思最接近,故为正确答案。

B选项:causes,意思是“导致”,意思不符,故排除。

C选项:hides,意思是“隐藏”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项:prevents,意思是“防止”,意思不符,故排除。

10、答案:D

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“ties”的意思是“关系;纽带”,词汇所在句“As archaeologist Belfer-Cohen notes, these burials may reflect an ancestor cult and a growing sense of community emotional ties and attachment to a particular place……”的意思是“据考古学家Belfer-Cohen记载,这些墓葬可能反映出了一种祖先崇拜,团队意识情感纽带的增强以及对特殊地区的一种依赖性……”下面我们来看选项:

A选项:values,意思是“价值”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项:experience,意思是“经历”,意思不符,故排除。

C选项:influences,意思是“影响”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项:connections,意思是“联系,连接”,意思最接近,故为正确答案。

11、答案:A

题型:选非

解析:本题为否定事实信息题。题目问以下哪一项不属于纳图夫人的文化变化?

A选项:技术的进步。文中没有提到技术的进步,故A选项为正确答案。

B选项:个人装饰物。根据关键词“ornamentation”定位到第三段第2句“……and it is possible that this ornamentation actually reflects a growing sense of ethnic identity and perhaps some differences in personal and group status.”故B选项符合原文,排除。

C选项:洞穴壁画。定位到第三段中这一句“……and Natufian period cave paintings have been found in Anatolia, Syria, and Iran.”这里提到洞穴壁画在多处被发现,故C选项符合原文,排除。

D选项:墓穴遗址。第三段后半段都在讲洞穴遗址,一开始纳图夫人把墓穴建在楼层里,而后来才将生活区和墓葬区分隔来,故D选项符合原文,排除。

12、答案:A

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。题目问以下哪一项可能推动了纳图夫人将农耕作为一种生活方式?我们根据题干关键信息“toward farming as a way of life”定位到第四段第1句“The question of why the Natufians differed from their predecessors in these and other ways and why they made these first steps toward farming as a way of life remains unclear.”而后文的内容就开始阐述可能的原因,“There were climate changes, of course, and growing aridity and rising population densities may have forced them to intensify the exploitation of cereals”这句话中提到了天气原因(干旱)和增长的人口密度,是迫使纳图夫人加强对谷物的开发利用的原因。所以A选项涵盖了这两个原因,故A选项正确。

B选项:镰刀和其他工具的发展使纳图夫人能够开发利用新的农作物。首先,镰刀和其他工具的发展归根结底是由于恶劣的天气和增长的人口密度所导致的,其次这些工具也没有使纳图夫人开发利用“新的作物”故B选项排除。

C选项:纳图夫时期的天气,为种植农作物提供了有利的条件。错误,因为原文中提到了“growing aridity”意思是“越来越严重的干旱”,故C选项与原文矛盾,排除。

D选项:纳图夫与邻国竞争,促使纳图夫人种植更多的谷物。错误,因为文章没有提及这一点。

13、答案:A

题型:插入

解析:本题为句子插入题。带插入句的意思是“逐步发展的文化复杂性的更多证据,来自纳图夫墓葬。”这句话中,我们需要把握的关键词是“burial”。然后我们把这句话带到原文中去看,A方框之前,讲的都是纳图夫文化所经历的其他变化的证据——装饰品、洞穴壁画等,而A方框之后,讲的都是关于墓葬。所以待插入句中的“further evidence”有一种承上启下的作用,说明下文中所讲的墓葬内容将提供更多关于纳图夫文化变化的证据。故句子插在A处最合适。

14、答案:CEF

题型:归总

解析:本题为概要小结题。我们逐一来看选项,找出正确答案。

A选项:纳图夫人用工具来收集和加工食物,但是他们缺少容器这说明他们很少有多余的食物用以储存。对应文章第一段,A选项的前半句话是对的,但是文章并没有说他们缺少容器说明他们没有多余的食物储存,原文只是说“Stone vessels indicate an increased need for containers, but there is no evidence of Natufian clay working or pottery.”说明他们没有用黏土或陶土制造容器。故A选项错误。

B选项:纳图夫人饮食中盐分的增加说明肉类变得更难获得,这可能是由天气变化导致的。“盐分的增加”对应第二段内容,但是第二段末只是说纳图夫人增加了饮食中谷类的比重,所以要补充盐分,没有说肉类更难获得。而“天气的变化”对应最后一段,天气变化是迫使纳图夫人采用农耕生活方式的诱因,而不是导致肉类更难获得的原因。故B选项错误。

C选项:纳图夫人参与贸易,并且生活在很大的营地,在那里他们有时会建造经久的建筑。对应文章第二段内容,故C选项正确。

D选项:纳图夫文化的发展在不同地区是不同的,一部分原因是因为各地食物种类和量的不同。错误,因为全文没有提到该信息。

E选项:虽然纳图夫人的饮食中包含着从打猎中获得的肉类,大量证据显示纳图夫人会吃很多谷物,甚至有可能种植谷物。对应文章第2段的内容,故E选项正确。

F选项:纳图夫艺术,个人饰物以及墓葬遗址都水命文化变化中所包含的民族认同感,和祖先崇拜。F选项对应文章第三段的内容,是第三段的概括总结,故F选项正确。

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