网站导航     在线客服  
2018托福真题解析汇总
学生选择在小站备考:30天 386510名,今日申请2817人    备考咨询 >>

【小站原创】TPO51托福阅读Passage3文本+题目+答案解析

2018年04月12日10:20 来源:小站整理
参与(0) 阅读(3277)

托福备考资料免费领取

免费领取
摘要:TPO托福模考软件是目前市面上最好用的托福备考资料了,托福考生一般都会拿TPO来进行托福考试的练习。这里小编将为大家整理了完整理了TPO51托福阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析,帮助大家更好的进行托福听力备考。

现在大家在进行托福备考时TPO托福模考软件相信是大家用的最多的工具了,对于托福成绩的提升是非常有帮助的。托福听力可以说是整个托福考试当中比较重要的一个部分,如何利用现有资料TPO模考软件来提升大家的托福成绩呢?今天小编在这里整理了TPO51托福阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析来分享给大家,希望对大家托福听力备考有帮助。

TPO51托福模考软件配套资料汇总→→→点击进入

【小站原创】TPO51托福阅读Passage3文本+题目+答案解析图1

TPO51托福阅读Passage3原文文本

Population Growth in Nineteenth-Century Europe

Because of industrialization, but also because of a vast increase in agricultural output without which industrialization would have been impossible, Western Europeans by the latter half of the nineteenth century enjoyed higher standards of living and longer, healthier lives than most of the world’s peoples. In Europe as a whole, the population rose from 188 million in 1800 to 400 million in 1900. By 1900, virtually every area of Europe had contributed to the tremendous surge of population, but each major region was at a different stage of demographic change.

Improvements in the food supply continued trends that had started in the late seventeenth century. New lands were put under cultivation, while the use of crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand. Setbacks did occur. Regional agricultural failures were the most common cause of economic recessions until 1850, and they could lead to localized famine as well. A major potato blight (disease) in 1846-1847 led to the deaths of at least one million persons in Ireland and the emigration of another million, and Ireland never recovered the population levels the potato had sustained to that point. Bad grain harvests at the same time led to increased hardship throughout much of Europe.

After 1850, however, the expansion of foods more regularly kept pace with population growth, though the poorer classes remained malnourished. Two developments were crucial. First, the application of science and new technology to agriculture increased. Led by German universities, increasing research was devoted to improving seeds, developing chemical fertilizers, and advancing livestock. After 1861, with the development of land-grant universities in the United States that had huge agricultural programs, American crop-production research added to this mix. Mechanization included the use of horse-drawn harvesters and seed drills, many developed initially in the United States. It also included mechanical cream separators and other food-processing devices that improved supply.

The second development involved industrially based transportation. With trains and steam shipping, it became possible to move foods to needy regions within Western Europe quickly. Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the past. Many Western European countries, headed by Britain, began also to import increasing amounts of food, not only from Eastern Europe, a traditional source, but also from the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand. Steam shipping, which improved speed and capacity, as well as new procedures for canning and refrigerating foods (particularly after 1870), was fundamental to these developments.

Europe's population growth included one additional innovation by the nineteenth century: it combined with rapid urbanization. More and more Western Europeans moved from countryside to city, and big cities grew most rapidly of all. By 1850, over half of all the people in England lived in cities, a first in human history. In one sense, this pattern seems inevitable growing numbers of people pressed available resources on the land, even when farmwork was combined with a bit of manufacturing, so people crowded into cities seeking work or other resources. Traditionally, however, death rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside by a large margin; cities had maintained population only through steady in-migration. Thus rapid urbanization should have reduced overall population growth, but by the middle of the nineteenth century this was no longer the case. Urban death rates remained high, particularly in the lower-class slums, but they began to decline rapidly.

The greater reliability of food supplies was a factor in the decline of urban death rates. {[3|41|A]} Even more important were the gains in urban sanitation, as well as measures such as inspection of housing. {[3|41|B]} Reformers, including enlightened doctors, began to study the causes of high death rates and to urge remediation. Even before the discovery of germs, beliefs that disease spread by "miasmas" (noxious forms of bad air) prompted attention to sewers and open garbage; Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground sewers in England in the 1830s. {[3|41|C]} Gradually, public health provisions began to cut into customary urban mortality rates. {[3|41|D]} By 1900, in some parts of Western Europe life expectancy in the cities began to surpass that of the rural areas Industrial societies had figured out ways to combine large and growing cities with population growth, a development that would soon spread to other parts of the world.

TPO51托福阅读Passage3题目

1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about Europe in the nineteenth century?

A large increase in food production led to industrialization.

Population changes occurred at the same pace in the major regions.

The standard of living rose to the level of that in most parts of the world.

The tremendous rise in population led to greater agricultural output in every region.

2. According to paragraph 2, which of the following caused the food supply to increase in most of Western Europe during the nineteenth century?

Replacement of seventeenth-century farming techniques with more modern ones

Improved grain harvests in most European countries

Reduced demand for food as a result of a decreased population

Use of new land to grow crops

3. In paragraph 2, why does the author mention the potato blight that occurred in Ireland?

To identify a crop that was more successful in the United States than it was in Western Europe

To support a claim about regional agricultural failures

To give an example of a problematic trend that had started in the late seventeenth century

To provide evidence that many countries in Europe experienced a loss of population in the nineteenth century

4. The phrase "kept pace with" in the passage is closest in meaning to

exceeded

matched the increase in

increased the rate of

caused

5. According to paragraph 3 all of the following factors helped the supply of food meet the needs of a growing population EXCEPT

increased agricultural research in Germany

introduction of new crops

development of food-processing devices

agricultural programs in universities in the United States

6. The word "capacity" in the passage is closest in meaning to variety of goods

distance

reliability

available storage space

7. According to paragraph 4, famine became less of a problem in Western Europe during the nineteenth century because of

the decline of malnutrition

the construction of more food-storage facilities

faster means of transportation

improved agricultural methods in Eastern Europe

8. The word "inevitable" in the passage is closest in meaning to unexplainable

undesirable

unavoidable

unpredictable

9. According to paragraph 5, which of the following factors led to rapid urbanization in the first half of the nineteenth century?

The destruction of many farms due to bad harvests

The reduction in the amount of good-quality farmland

The rise in death rates in the countryside

The lack of jobs in the countryside

10. The word "surpass" in the passage is closest in meaning to exceed

influence

equal

differ from

11. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 6 about underground sewers?

They became common in most of Western Europe in the 1830s.

They helped reduce deaths caused by disease in cities.

They led to the discovery that disease could be caused by germs.

They encouraged people to leave rural areas and move to the cities.

12. Paragraph 6 mentions all of the following as factors that contributed to the rapid decline of urban death rates EXCEPT

the greater reliability of food supplies

improvements in sanitation

advances in the treatment of disease

provisions for inspecting houses

13. Look at the four squares [▇] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Such individual efforts had substantial, concrete effects on society.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [▇] to add the sentence to the passage.

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it. To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

Western Europe experienced a tremendous growth in population in the nineteenth century. Answer Choices

l Agricultural failures became less damaging after 1850 because of advances in science and technology as well as improvements in the transportation and preservation of foods.

l The development of better food-processing technologies allowed many Western European countries to grow their own food without having to import it from other countries.

l High death rates in the cities began to decline as food supplies became more reliable and as reformers prompted improvements in sanitation and housing.

l Although agricultural failures led to deaths and emigration population levels were restored within a short time.

l As the population in the countryside began increasing faster than the supply of food and living space, people began moving to the cities in search of jobs and other resources.

l The improvements in crop-growing methods created new jobs on the farms, causing people from the overcrowded cities to move to the countryside to fill those jobs.

TPO51托福阅读Passage3解析

1、答案:A

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。题目问:关于19世纪的欧洲下面哪一项是正确的?

A选项:食物产量的增长导致了工业化。正确,因为第一段第一句话中说“a vast increase in agricultural output without which industrialization would have been impossible”,说明农业产出是工业化的先决条件,故A选项为正确答案。

B选项:主要地区的人口变化节奏一致。错误,对应第一段最后一句中说的“but each major region was at a different stage of demographic change”,所以B选项与原文完全矛盾,排除。

C选项:生活水平提高到和世界其他地方一样的水平。错误,对应第一段第一句话中说的“Western Europeans by the latter half of the nineteenth century enjoyed higher standards of living and longer, healthier lives than most of the world’s peoples.”通过这个比较级可以明显看出欧洲人民的生活水平更高,故C排除。

D选项:人口的大量增长导致了各个地区农业产值的增长。根据第一段内容可知,是农业的发展,推动了人口增长。故D选项逻辑颠倒。排除。

2、答案:D

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。题目问19世纪西欧粮食产量增长的原因是什么?对应第二段第二句话“New lands were put under cultivation, while the use of crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand.”这句话说人们开辟新的土地用来耕种,种植本土作物的规模在不断扩大。D选项:开辟新土地种植农作物,符合文意,故为正确答案。

A选项:将17世纪的农场技术换成更先进的设备。错误,第二段只有第一句提到17世纪,“Improvements in the food supply continued trends that had started in the late seventeenth century.”但这句话说的是食品供应的提升延续了自17世纪末开始的趋势,并没有提到技术,故A选项未提及,排除。

B选项:欧洲大部分地区粮食增收。题目问的就是19世纪西欧粮食产量增长的原因是什么?而B选项又把题目复述了一遍,答非所问,故排除。

C选项:由于人口下降,食品需求也下降了。错误,因为C选项属于农业失败所造成的结果,是第二段后半段的主要内容,与本题无关,属于无关缠绕信息,故C选项排除。

3、答案:B

题型:目的

解析:本题为修辞目的题。题目问:作者为什么要提到马铃薯晚疫病?例子肯定是为了支持或说明观点,所以我们往前找到观点句“Setbacks did occur. Regional agricultural failures were the most common cause of economic recessions until 1850, and they could lead to localized famine as well.”作者举“potato blight”的例子是为了说明农业失败所造成的后果。故B选项正确。

A选项:说明一种农作物在美国比在西欧的种植更加成功。错误,土豆的例子不是为了说明种植农作物成功,相反,这是一次农业的失败,造成了很多人的死亡,故A选项排除。

C选项:举例说明从17世纪末开始的趋势是有问题的。第三段开头的这句话“ Improvements in the food supply continued trends that had started in the late seventeenth century.”只是为了说明食品供应自17世纪末以来一直在提升。而“potato blight”是农业失败的例子,与17世纪以来的食品供应趋势无关,故C选项排除。

D选项:提供证据证明欧洲的很多国家在19世纪人口下降。人口下降是“potato blight”导致的农业失败所造成的后果,是“potato blight”导致了“the loss of population”,它并不是用来证明人口下降,所以D选项逻辑错误,排除。

4、答案:B

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“kept pace with”的意思是“跟上”,我们把词汇带到原文中看,“After 1850, however, the expansion of foods more regularly kept pace with population growth, though the poorer classes remained malnourished.”的意思是“然而,1850年后,食物的增加慢慢跟上了人口增长的节奏。尽管贫困阶层仍然营养不良。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项:exceeded,意思是“超过”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项:matched the increase in, 意思是“与……的增长相匹配”,意思符合,故为正确答案。

C选项:increased the rate of, 意思是“增加……率”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项:caused,意思是“造成,导致”,意思不符,故排除。

5、答案:B

题型:选非

解析:本题为否定事实信息题。我们根据选项中的关键词定位,用排除法做题。

A选项:德国的农业研究。定位到第三段第4句“Led by German universities, increasing research was devoted to improving seeds, developing chemical fertilizers, and advancing livestock.” A选项原文中有提及,故排除。

B选项:引入新农作物。该信息在第三段未提及,故为正确答案。

C选项:食品加工设备的发展。定位到第三段最后一句“It also included mechanical cream separators and other food-processing devices that improved supply.”提到了机械奶油分离器和其他提升供应水平的食品加工设备,故C选项原文中有提及,排除。

D选项:美国大学的农业项目。对应这句话“After 1861, with the development of land-grant universities in the United States that had huge agricultural programs, American crop-production research added to this mix.”这句中提到了赠地大学有庞大的农业项目,故D选项符合原文,排除。

6、答案:D

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。capacity的意思是“容量;性能”,把词汇带到原文中看,“Steam shipping, which improved speed and capacity, as well as new procedures for canning and refrigerating foods (particularly after 1870), was fundamental to these developments.”这句话的意思是“能够提高运输速度和运输容量的蒸汽船,以及装罐和冷藏食物的新工艺(特别是在1870年以后),都为这些发展奠定了基础。”下面,我们来看选项:

A选项:variety of goods,意思是“商品的种类”,意思不符,排除。

B选项:distance,意思是“距离”,意思不符,故排除。

C选项:reliability,意思是“可靠性”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项:available storage space,意思是“可以用来存储的地方”,意思最接近,故为正确答案。

7、答案:C

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。第四段主要描述交通运输的影响。我们根据题干中的关键词“famine”定位到第3句“ Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the past.”再往前看,前面一句话说,通过火车和蒸汽船运输,人们可以迅速地将食物运输到西欧贫困地区。这说明交通运输的进步可以解决饥荒的问题,所以C选项正确。

A选项:营养不良的减少。“malnutrition”出现在这句话的括号内容里“Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the past.”是为了说明饥荒和营养不良是两个不同的概念,文中并没有提及营养不良情况的减少,故A选项为无关信息,排除。

B选项:建立更多的存储设施。第四段整段都没提及该信息,故排除。

D选项:东欧的农业方式进步。错误,根据关键词“Eastern Europe”我们找到这句话“Many Western European countries, headed by Britain, began also to import increasing amounts of food, not only from Eastern Europe, a traditional source, but also……”这句话其实是在说明交通运输有利于粮食的进口,可以从东欧进口粮食,但并没有提及东欧农业方式的进步,故D选项排除。

8、答案:C

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“inevitable”的意思是“不可避免的”。单词在文中所在句“In one sense, this pattern seems inevitable.”的意思是“从某种意义上说,这种模式看似是不可避免的。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项:unexplainable,意思是“无法解释的”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项:undesirable,意思是“不受欢迎的”, 意思不符,故排除。

C选项:unavoidable,意思是“不可避免的”,意思符合,故为正确答案。

D选项:unpredictable,意思是“无法预测的”,意思不符,故排除。

9、答案:D

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。题目问:导致19世纪上半叶,快速城市化进程的原因是什么?根据关键词“first half of the nineteenth century”,定位到这句话“By 1850, over half of all the people in England lived in cities, a first in human history.”而后面紧接着的一句话就给出了原因,“In one sense, this pattern seems inevitable:growing numbers of people pressed available resources on the land, even when farmwork was combined with a bit of manufacturing, so people crowded into cities seeking work or other resources.”这种快速的城市化进程是不可避免的:因为人口变得越来越多了,很多的人压榨一片土地上一切可以利用的资源,显然资源是不够用的,所以人们只能涌入城市寻找工作或其他资源。故这里D选项正确。

A选项:因为粮食歉收导致很多农场被破坏。这属于无中生有的信息,直接排除。

B选项:高质量的农耕用地的减少。本段中并没有提到农耕用地的减少,只提到“even when farmwork was combined with a bit of manufacturing”,即使农耕与制造业相结合时,乡村的资源还是不能满足人口需求。故B选项未提及,排除。

C选项:乡村人口死亡率的上升。错误,因为文中提到“Traditionally, however, death rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside by a large margin”,这句话说传统意义上,城市的死亡率远远超过了农村,但是人们还是不断涌入农村。所以乡村人口死亡率在当时其实低于城市。故C选项与原文矛盾,排除。

10、答案:A

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“surpass”的意思是“超过;优于”。单词在文中所在句“Traditionally, however, death rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside by a large margin”的意思是“然而,传统上来说,城市的死亡率远远超过了农村。”下面来看选项:

A选项:exceed,意思是“超过”,意思符合,故为正确答案。

B选项:influence,意思是“影响”,意思不符,故排除。

C选项:equal,意思是“等于;比得上”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项:differ from,意思是“与……不同”, 意思不符,故排除。

11、答案:B

题型:推断

解析:本题为推断题。文中关于下水道的信息,以下哪一项推断是正确的?根据题干中的关键词“underground sewers”定位到最后一段中这段内容“Even before the discovery of germs, beliefs that disease spread by "miasmas" (noxious forms of bad air) prompted attention to sewers and open garbage;Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground sewers in England in the 1830s.”这段话是在说,即使在细菌被发现之前,人们也已经意识到下水道的清洁和垃圾清理很重要,而查德威克还在英国引领了模范性的城市运动,要求对城市下水道进行改革。从第六段整体来看,“underground sewers”提高城市卫生设施的一个范例,而这有助于降低疾病发生率,从而降低人口死亡率。这道题是一个正向推理的过程,故这里B选项正确。

A选项:19世纪30年代下水道在西欧大部分地区很普及,但根据文意我们知道,当时查德威克还在英国引领了模范性的整治下水道的运动,说明当时下水道并没有普及,故A与文章内容矛盾,排除。

C选项:下水道的存在使得人们发现细菌可以引起疾病。错误,因为文章没有提到该信息,只是说在细菌被发现之前,人们已经开始注重下水道的清洁了。

D选项:鼓励人们离开农村,迁往城市。错误,因为文章中并没有提到这两者存在逻辑关联性。

12、答案:D

题型:选非

解析:本题为否定事实信息题。题目问以下哪一项不是导致城市人口死亡率下降的原因,我们用排除法来做题。

A选项:食物供应的可靠性。该信息在第六段首句中就提到“The greater reliability of food supplies was a factor in the decline of urban death rates.”故A选项符合文意,排除。

B选项:卫生水平的提高。该信息在第2句中提到“Even more important were the gains in urban sanitation”故B选项在文中有所提及,故排除。

C选项:疾病治疗方法的提升。该信息在第3句中提到“Reformers, including enlightened doctors, began to study the causes of high death rates and to urge remediation.”所以C选项也符合文章事实,故排除。

D选项:关于检查房屋的规定。该信息对应到第2句中的“as well as measures such as inspection of housing”,虽然文章有提到检查房屋,但是文中说的是“measure”,措施,方法。但是选项中却说“provision”,规定。文章中并没有说有制定相关规定,故D选项不符合原文,为正确答案。

13、答案:C

题型:插入

解析:本题为句子插入题。待插入句的意思是“这样的个人努力对社会有着重大的、实际的影响。”从文意上来看,上文内容一定提到了关于某个人的个人努力,而下文内容必然会阐述这种个人行为所带来的影响。所以,我们回到文中去看:

一直到B选项之前,都没有出现“个人”,而C方框的前一句话中说“Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground sewers in England in the 1830s.”这句话的意思是德威克在英国引领了一次模范性的城市运动,要求对城市下水道进行改革。而C选项后面这句话是在说查德威克的城市运动对社会造成的影响。故句子插在C处最合适。D处也不合适,因为D方框后面的内容也是在说明这些改革带来的积极影响,如果在D处把关于“积极影响”的内容断开的话,显然不合适。

14、答案:ACE

题型:归总

解析:本题为全文总结题。我们逐一来看选项,找出正确答案:

A选项:由于科学技术、交通、和食物储存方法的进步,农业失败的影响在1850年后减弱。正确,对应原文三四段的内容。第三段讲的是科学技术的积极影响、第四段讲的是交通、食品加工设备的进步。故A选项是文章三、四段的概括总结,故为正确答案。

B选项:食品加工技术的发展使西欧国家不需要从其他国家进口食物,可以种植自己的农作物。B选项错误,第二段中提到“New lands were put under cultivation, while the use of crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand.”人们开辟土地,种植本土作物;而第四段中提到交通的发展,使西欧国家可以从其他国家进口食物。但这两个信息之间并没有逻辑关联,B选项编造了2者之间的逻辑,故B选项错误。

以上就是小编为大家整理了TPO51托福阅读Passage3原文文本+题目+答案解析,大家可以边借助TPO模考软件听音频看看自己哪些地方听不懂,然后来看看原文,同时对练习托福听力精听也是很有帮助的。最后,小站教育编辑预祝大家托福考试能取得理想的成绩。

更多最新,最in的托福资讯,关注公众号:小站托福(ID:xiaozhantuofu2015)

特别申明:本文内容来源网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵权请立即与我们联系contactus#zhan.com,我们将及时处理。

相关文章

【小站原创】TPO40-51题目及答案解析全收录(完整版) 【小站原创】TPO40托福阅读文本及答案解析(Ancien... TPO54托福阅读passage3原文与翻译 生命的元素 【小站原创】TPO48托福阅读文本及答案解析(Chines... 【小站原创】TPO49托福阅读文本及答案解析(Ancien... 【小站原创】TPO41托福阅读文本及答案解析(Navajo... 托福阅读真题练习:100篇托福阅读原文+题目+答案 【小站原创】TPO41托福阅读文本及答案解析(Climat...

专题推荐

未输入验证码
未输入验证码
未输入验证码
获取验证码
免费领取
小站教育托福官方群

群号:857201332

「扫二维码 加入群聊」
加入
托福关键词