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【小站原创】TPO51托福阅读Passage1文本+题目+答案解析

2018年04月11日20:32 来源:小站整理
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摘要:TPO托福模考软件是目前市面上最好用的托福备考资料了,托福考生一般都会拿TPO来进行托福考试的练习。这里小编将为大家整理了完整理了TPO51托福阅读Passage1原文文本+题目+答案解析,帮助大家更好的进行托福听力备考

现在大家在进行托福备考时TPO托福模考软件相信是大家用的最多的工具了,对于托福成绩的提升是非常有帮助的。托福听力可以说是整个托福考试当中比较重要的一个部分,如何利用现有资料TPO模考软件来提升大家的托福成绩呢?今天小编在这里整理了TPO51托福阅读Passage1原文文本+题目+答案解析来分享给大家,希望对大家托福听力备考有帮助。

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【小站原创】TPO51托福阅读Passage1文本+题目+答案解析图1

TPO51托福阅读Passage1原文文本

Memphis: United Egypt's First Capital

The city of Memphis, located on the Nile near the modern city of Cairo, was founded around 3100 B.C. as the first capital of a recently united Egypt. The choice of Memphis by Egypt's first kings reflects the site's strategic importance. First, and most obvious, the apex of the Nile River delta was a politically opportune location for the state's administrative center, standing between the united lands of Upper and Lower Egypt and offering ready access to both parts of the country. The older predynastic (pre-3100 B.C.) centers of power. This and Hierakonpolis, were too remote from the vast expanse of the delta, which had been incorporated into the unified state. Only a city within easy reach of both the Nile valley to the south and the more spread out, difficult terrain to the north could provide the necessary political control that the rulers of early dynastic Egypt (roughly 3000-2600 B.C.) required.

{[3|13|A]}The region of Memphis must have also served as an important node for transport and communications, even before the unification of Egypt. {[3|13|B]}The region probably acted as a conduit for much, if not all, of the river-based trade between northern and southern Egypt. {[3|13|C]}Moreover, commodities (such as wine, precious oils, and metals) imported from the Near East by the royal courts of predynastic Upper Egypt would have been channeled through the Memphis region on their way south. {[3|13|D]}In short, therefore, the site of Memphis offered the rulers of the Early Dynastic Period an ideal location for controlling internal trade within their realm, an essential requirement for a state-directed economy that depended on the movement of goods.

Equally important for the national administration was the ability to control communications within Egypt. The Nile provided the easiest and quickest artery of communication and the national capital was, again, ideally located in this respect. Recent geological surveys of the Memphis region have revealed much about its topography in ancient times. It appears that the location of Memphis may have been even more advantageous for controlling trade, transport, and communications than was previously appreciated. Surveys and drill cores have shown that the level of the Nile floodplain has steadily risen over the last five millenniums. When the floodplain was much lower, as it would have been in predynastic and early dynastic times, the outwash fans (fan-shaped deposits of sediments) of various wadis (stream-beds or channels that carry water only during rainy periods) would have been much more prominent features on the east bank. The fan associated with the Wadi Hof extended a significant way into the Nile floodplain, forming a constriction in the vicinity of Memphis. The valley may have narrowed at this point to a mere three kilometers, making it the ideal place for controlling river traffic.

Furthermore, the Memphis region seems to have been favorably located for the control not only of river-based trade but also of desert trade routes. The two outwash fans in the area gave access to the extensive wadi systems of the eastern desert. In predynastic times, the Wadi Digla may have served as a trade route between the Memphis region and the Near East, to judge from the unusual concentration of foreign artifacts found in the predynastic settlement of Maadi. Access to, and control of, trade routes between Egypt and the Near East seems to have been a preoccupation of Egypt’s rulers during the period of state formation. The desire to monopolize foreign trade may have been one of the primary factors behind the political unification of Egypt. The foundation of the national capital at the junction of an important trade route with the Nile valley is not likely to have been accidental. Moreover, the Wadis Hof and Digla provided the Memphis region with accessible desert pasturage. As was the case with the cities of Hierakonpolis and Elkab, the combination within the same area of both desert pasturage and alluvial arable land (land suitable for growing crops) was a particularly attractive one for early settlement; this combination no doubt contributed to the prosperity of the Memphis region from early predynastic times.

TPO51托福阅读Passage1题目

1. The word "vast" in the passage is closest in meaning to

fertile

huge

unique

irregular

2. According to paragraph 1, why was Memphis a better choice for the capital of a united Egypt than either This or Hierakonpolis?

Memphis was in a better location for maintaining administrative control.

Memphis had long been a regional administrative center by the time Egypt was united.

This and Hierakonpolis had never actually been incorporated into the unified state.

Egyptian rulers had failed to keep political control over This and Hierakonpolis in predynastic times.

3. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that one consequence of the unification of Egypt was

the reduction of the strategic importance of older centers of power

the opportunity for the recently united Egypt to become economically self-sufficient

the increase in political tensions between the rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt

the reduction of Egypt's dependence upon the Nile for trade and communications

4. Which of the following best describes how paragraph 1 is organized?

Two simultaneous developments are described, as well as the reasons why neither one would have occurred without the other.

A hypothesis is presented, and then points in favor of that hypothesis as well as points against it are discussed.

A major event is described, and then the most obvious effects of that event are presented.

A decision is described, and then one likely motivation for that decision is presented.

5. According to paragraph 2, when did Egypt import goods from the Near East?

Once internal trade was fully controlled from Memphis

Not until early dynastic Egypt established its state-directed economy

As early as predynastic times

Only when local supplies of those goods had been completely used up

6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?

Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Thus in Memphis, the rulers of the Early Dynastic Period were ideally placed to control internal trade, which they had to do in order to run their economy.

Therefore the rulers of the Early Dynastic Period thought Memphis was the ideal location for trade with nearby countries.

In short, a state-directed economy like that of the Early Dynastic Period requires choosing a single location to which goods can be moved-Memphis, in this case.

In sum, then, a state-directed economy first developed during Egypt's Early Dynastic Period because Memphis was an ideal location for controlling trade.

7. The word "appreciated" in the passage is closest in meaning to

proposed

understood

approved

expected

8. According to paragraph 3, recent research into the topography of the Memphis region in ancient times suggests which of the following?

The level of the Nile floodplains was much higher in predynastic and dynastic times than in later times.

The sediment deposits of wadis were not as noticeable in predynastic and dynastic times than in later times.

The Nile valley at the point of Memphis was narrower in predynastic and dynastic times than it was in later times.

Frequent rainy periods may have caused a significant reduction of trade traffic during the predynastic and dynastic times.

9. The word "vicinity" in the passage is closest in meaning to

center

fields

city

surrounding area

10. According to paragraph 4 which of the following is NOT a reason Memphis was chosen as the capital of a united Egypt?

It was at the junction of a major trade route with the Nile valley.

It was near land that could be used for animal grazing and for growing crops.

The nearby outwash fans led into wadis that could be used as desert trade routes.

Since foreign traders had settled in nearby Maadi, trade between the two cities could be established.

11. The phrase "to have been accidental" in the passage is closest in meaning to

to have gone wrong

to have been helpful

to have occurred by chance

to have made a difference

12. In paragraph 4, why does the author mention the cities of Hierakonpolis and Elkab?

To give an indication of the level of prosperity that Memphis is thought to have enjoyed from its earliest days

To compare the Memphis region to them in terms of their similar combinations of characteristics providing advantages for early settlement

To identify the models that the founders of Memphis followed in laying out the national capital

To suggest that the combination of desert pasturage and alluvial arable land in the same area was very common

13. Look at the four squares [▇] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

While considerations of political power and ease of administration were decisive in choosing the location of the new capital, the site clearly had other advantages.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [▇] to add the sentence to the passage.

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Around 3100 B.C. Memphis was chosen for its strategic importance to be the first capital of a recently united Egypt.

Answer Choices

• River-based trade from northern Egypt and imported goods going south all passed through the Memphis region, making Memphis an ideal location for controlling trade.

• Recent geological surveys suggest that the topographical features of the Memphis region made it particularly well-suited for controlling communications and trade.

• After Memphis became the capital city, river-based trade along the Nile gained in importance, while land-based desert trade declined in importance.

• The rulers of unified Egypt enjoyed a monopoly over foreign trade because all such trade was required to go through the Wadi Digla, to which the rulers controlled all access.

• While the location of Memphis was agriculturally favorable, it was particularly attractive because it enabled Egypt's rulers to control trade moving through the desert from the Near East.

• Recent geological surveys suggest that the topographical features of the Memphis region made it particularly well-suited for controlling communications and trade.

TPO51托福阅读Passage1解析

1、答案:B

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“vast”的意思是“巨大的;大量的”,词汇在文中所在句“This and Hierakonpolis, were too remote from the vast expanse of the delta, which had been incorporated into the unified state. ”的意思是“This城和Hierakonpolis城(耶拉孔波利斯),距离广袤的尼罗河三角洲太遥远了,而这片区域已经被并入了统一后的埃及王国中。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项:fertile的意思是“肥沃的”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项:huge的意思是“巨大的”,意思符合,故为正确答案。

C选项:unique的意思是“唯一的,独一无二的”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项:irregular的意思是“不规则的,无规律的”,意思不符,故排除。

2、答案:A

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。根据题干中的关键词“choice”定位到第一段中的这句话。“The choice of Memphis by Egypt's first kings reflects the site's strategic importance.”说明孟斐斯的选址有战略意义,再往下看“First, and most obvious, the apex of the Nile River delta was a politically opportune location for the state's administrative center, standing between the united lands of Upper and Lower Egypt and offering ready access to both parts of the country.”这句话着重强调了孟斐斯的地理位置处于国家的两个部分之间,其地理位置非常有利于管理整个国家。而后作者所举的“This”和“Hierakonpolis”的例子,是在于孟斐斯的位置作对比,这两个城市距离尼罗河三角洲太遥远了,无法为早期埃及王朝的统治者们提供政治统治的必要条件。所以A选项正确。

B选项:孟斐斯在埃及统一之前就一直是该地区的行政中心。错误, 因为文中说“The older predynastic (pre-3100 B.C.) centers of power. This and Hierakonpolis, were too remote from the vast expanse of the delta……”明确提到埃及的前政治中心是“This”和“Hierakonpolis”。故B选项错误。

C选项:“This”和“Hierakonpolis”从来没有真正被并入到统一后的埃及。错误,因为文章说“This and Hierakonpolis, ……had been incorporated into the unified state.”C选项与原文矛盾,故排除。

D选项:在前王朝时代,埃及统治者们在“This”和“Hierakonpolis”无法进行政治统治。文中并未提及,故排除。

3、答案:A

题型:推断

解析:本题为推理题。题目问埃及统一的一个结果是什么。根据第一段最后2句话,我们可以得知,“This”和“Hierakonpolis”是埃及的旧都,但是因为距离尼罗河三角洲太遥远了,所以无法为早期埃及王朝的统治者们提供政治统治的必要条件,因而地理位置更优越的孟斐斯所取代。所以A选项:旧都战略重要性的降低,是正确答案。

B选项:近代统一后的埃及有了实现经济自给自足的机会。错误,因为第一段根本没有提及与经济有关的任何内容,故B选项直接排除。

C选项:上埃及和下埃及统治者之间的关系变得紧张。错误,第一段中只有这句话提到了上埃及和下埃及“First, and most obvious, the apex of the Nile River delta ……standing between the united lands of Upper and Lower Egypt and offering ready access to both parts of the country.”但是这句话是在描述孟斐斯优越的地理位置,与政治关系紧张没有任何联系。所以C选项文中未提及,排除。

D选项:埃及通过尼罗河进行贸易和通讯的依赖性降低。错误,因为第一段中还没有提到埃及依靠尼罗河进行贸易和通讯,而依赖性降低更是无从谈起。故D选项在第一段未提及,排除。

4、答案:D

题型:组织结构

解析:本题为组织结构题。题目问第一段是如何组织的?我们通读第一段,寻找逻辑词,来剖析这一段文字的结构。第1句描述孟斐斯的地理位置和历史背景。第2句提出孟斐斯的选址体现出了战略重要性。第3句话给出了原因:孟斐斯处于国家上、下半部分之间,拥有国家行政中心的极佳位置。第4句话用“This”和“Hierakonpolis”两座城市遥远的地理位置作反比,衬托出孟斐斯的地理优越性。第5句做概括,说明孟斐斯距离南、北地区都很近,能够为早期埃及王朝的统治者们提供政治统治的必要条件。下面我们看选项:

A选项:同时描写2种发展,以及2者缺一不可的原因。错误,因为文中没有描述2种发展,只描述了孟斐斯的战略重要性。故A排除。

B选项:提出一种假象,然后讨论支持该假设以及推翻该假设的内容。本段提出“孟斐斯的选址体现出了战略重要性”,并给出了支持的理由,但是并没有推翻假设。故B选项排除。

C选项:描述了一个主要事件,然后讨论了它所造成的影响。错误,因为第一段中并没有讨论选择孟斐斯作为首都的影响。

D选项:先描述一个结论,然后提出一个可能的原因。正确,第一段描述的结论是“The choice of Memphis by Egypt's first kings reflects the site's strategic importance.”而提出的1个原因是“First, and most obvious, the apex of the Nile River delta was a politically opportune location for the state's administrative center,……”故D选项符合第一段的组织结构。

5、答案:C

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。根据题干中的关键词“import”和“Near East”,可以定位到第二段第3句“Moreover, commodities (such as wine, precious oils, and metals) imported from the Near East by the royal courts of predynastic Upper Egypt would have been channeled through the Memphis region on their way south.”该句中的“predynastic”正好对应C选项中的“predynastic time”。此外,第二段第一句也给了提示,说孟斐斯地区也必然是交通运输和通讯的重要枢纽,即使是在埃及统一之前也是如此。这里的“埃及统一之前”指的就是predynastic time 前王朝时期。故C选项正确。

A选项:在孟斐斯控制国内贸易的时候。根据“internal trade”定位到第2段最后一句“In short, therefore, the site of Memphis offered the rulers of the Early Dynastic Period an ideal location for controlling internal trade within their realm……”但这是一句总结句,与题目无关,故A排除。

B选项:直到新王朝早期埃及建立国有经济的时候。国有经济state directed economy一词只在第二段最后1句中提到,但与题目无关,故排除。

D选项:当本地的商品用完的时候。文中未提及,故排除。

6、答案:A

题型:句子简化

解析:本题为句子简化题。首先,我们来看这句要简化的句子,主语是site,意思是说孟斐斯的选址能够给早期埃及王朝时代的统治者们提供控制国内贸易的理想地理位置,而后半句话中的“an essential requirement”是“controlling internal trade within their realm”的同位语,意思是说,控制国内贸易,是建立依赖货物流通的国有经济的必要条件。下面我们来看选项:

A选项中,“were ideally placed”正好对应原文中的“an ideal location”, 句子的意思和要简化的句子基本一致,主要成分一个不少,故A为正确答案。

B选项缺少关于原文后半句中“控制国内经济,以建设国有经济的内容”,故B选项缺少句子重要成分,排除。

C选项喧宾夺主,将“state-directed economy”作为句子的主要内容,说为了建设国有经济,需要寻找一个货物能够流通的地点,例如孟斐斯。而原句主要是在强调孟斐斯地理位置的重要性。故C选项逻辑错误,排除。

D选项和C选项一样,主要强调国有经济的出现。但原句是在强调孟斐斯地理位置的重要性。故D选项逻辑错误,排除。

7、答案:B

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“appreciated”的意思是“领会;理解,认识”,词汇在文中所在句“It appears that the location of Memphis may have been even more advantageous for controlling trade, transport, and communications than was previously appreciated.”的意思是“由此看来,孟斐斯的地理位置对控制贸易、运输和通讯来说,可能比人们之前所认为的还要有利。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项“proposed”,提议;建议,意思不符,故排除。

B选项“understood”,理解,认识,意思最接近,故为正确答案。

C选项“approved”,赞成,支持,意思不符,故排除。

D选项“expected”,期待,期望,意思不符,故排除。

8、答案:C

题型:细节

解析:本题为事实信息题。通读第三段的内容,我们逐一来看选项:

A选项:尼罗河泛滥平原的高度在“predynastic and dynastic times”的时候要更高。定位到原文这句话“When the floodplain was much lower, as it would have been in predynastic and early dynastic times……”因此,我们可以知道在埃及前王朝时期和埃及王朝早期,泛滥平原的高度要低得多,故A选项与原文矛盾,排除。

B选项:相比后来,河流沉积物在“predynastic and dynastic times”这一时期更多,但文中并未提到这两个时间段河流沉积物的对比。文中只提到“much more prominent features on the east bank.”东岸的沉积物更多。故B选项文中未提及,排除。

C选项:尼罗河谷在“predynastic and dynastic times”这一时期更窄。对应文中这句话“The valley may have narrowed at this point to a mere three kilometers, making it the ideal place for controlling river traffic.”意思是这个山谷在当时变得很窄,宽度仅为3公里,这也使它成为了控制河流交通的理想地点。故C选项符合原文,正确。

D选项:频繁的降雨使“predynastic and dynastic times”的贸易交通减少。错误,因为文中并未提及。

9、答案:D

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“vicinity”的意思是“附近”,词汇在文中所在句“The fan associated with the Wadi Hof extended a significant way into the Nile floodplain, forming a constriction in the vicinity of Memphis.”的意思是“Hof河的冰水扇扩展到了尼罗河的泛滥平原上,在孟斐斯城附近造成了挤压。” 下面我们来看选项:

A选项“center”, 意思是“中央;中心”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项“fields”,意思是“场地;领域”,意思不符,故排除。

C选项“city”,意思是“城市”,意思不符,故排除。

D选项“surrounding area”,意思是“附近的地方”,意思符合,故为正确答案。

10、答案:D

题型:选非

解析:本题为否定事实信息题。我们从选项中寻找关键词,定位原文,逐一排除。

A选项中,根据关键词“junction”定位到这一句“The foundation of the national capital at the junction of an important trade route with the Nile valley is not likely to have been accidental.” 综合第四段来看,控制埃及和近东地区之间的贸易路线,是埃及统治者们在国家刚建成时的当务之急,故A选项符合原文,排除。

B选项对应第四段倒数1、2句话,这两句话说沙漠牧场和冲积耕地在该地区结合,所以B选项符合原文,排除。

C选项对应第四段第2句“The two outwash fans in the area gave access to the extensive wadi systems of the eastern desert.” 故C选项符合原文,排除。

D选项说外国商贩在马迪城附近定居,促进了两地的贸易。文中并未提及该信息,故D选项为正确答案。

11、答案:C

题型:词汇

解析:本题为词汇题。“to have been accidental”的意思是“偶然的”,该词组在文中所在句“The foundation of the national capital at the junction of an important trade route with the Nile valley is not likely to have been accidental.”的意思是“在重要贸易路线与尼罗河谷的交汇处建立国家首都绝非偶然。”下面我们来看选项:

A选项的意思是“出了问题”,意思不符,故排除。

B选项的意思是“很有帮助”,意思不符,故排除。

C选项的意思是“偶然的”,意思符合,故为正确答案。

D选项的意思是“变得不同”, 意思不符,故排除。

12、答案:B

题型:目的

解析:本题为修辞目的题。首先我们通过关键词“Hierakonpolis and Elkab”定位到它在文中的位置,即本段最后一句,意思是“沙漠牧场和冲积耕地(适合耕种农作物的土地)在同一片区域的结合,使这片地区成为一个特别有吸引力的早期定居点;这样的组合无疑促进了前王朝时代早期孟斐斯地区的繁荣。”再来看前一句话“Moreover, the Wadis Hof and Digla provided the Memphis region with accessible desert pasturage.”通过结合这两句话,我们可知孟斐斯和Hierakonpolis and Elkab一样,都是沙漠牧场和冲积耕地结合的地区,因此作者举例是为了说明沙漠牧场和冲积耕地,同样能够促进孟斐斯的繁荣,为定居提供有利条件,这也是孟斐斯选址所考虑的一个重要原因。所以B选项正确。

A选项:举例说明孟斐斯早期的繁荣水平。错误,因为作者举这两个城市的例子,并不是为了说明早期的孟斐斯有多么的繁荣,而是为了强调它们拥有相似的地理特征,这一地理特征对城市繁荣非常有利。故A选项排除。

C选项:建造者是参照这两座城市来建造孟斐斯的。错误,因为文章没有提及该信息。故C排除。

D选项:说明在该地沙漠牧场和冲积耕地的结合非常普遍。错误,文章没有提及该信息,而且这不是作者举这两个城市的例子的主要目的。故D排除。

13、答案:A

题型:插入

解析:本题为句子插入题。待插入句的意思是“虽然政权因素和便于管理是首都选址的决定性因素,但是很明显,选择孟斐斯作为首都是因为它还有其他的优点。”文章第一段,整段都在描述孟斐斯的地理位置能为早期埃及王朝的统治者们提供政治统治的必要条件。而第二段整段都在描述孟斐斯地区也必然是交通运输和通讯的重要枢纽。所以句子插在第二段段首,即A处最为合适,起到承上启下的作用。故A选项正确。

14、答案:ABF

题型:归总

解析:本题为文章总结题。我们逐一来看选项,找出正确答案。

A选项说河流贸易和进口商品到南方都要经过孟斐斯,使孟斐斯成为了控制贸易的理想地点。正确,对应文章第二段2、3句,故A选项是文章第二段的概括总结,故正确。

B选项说最近的地质研究发现孟斐斯的地形特征使它成为控制通讯和贸易的理想地点。对应文章第三段中的这句话“It appears that the location of Memphis may have been even more advantageous for controlling trade, transport, and communications than was previously appreciated.”故B选项是对文章第三段的概括总结,故正确。

C选项说埃及的统治者垄断外国贸易,因为这些贸易都需要经过Digla河。对应最后一段的这句话“In predynastic times, the Wadi Digla may have served as a trade route between the Memphis region and the Near East, to judge from the unusual concentration of foreign artifacts found in the predynastic settlement of Maadi.” C选项在文中没有明确提到,而且只是细节信息,不是文章主旨。故排除。

D选项说孟斐斯成为首都之后,尼罗河贸易的重要性增加,而陆地沙漠贸易的重要性降低。该信息在文中未提及,且根据全文信息,我们可以推测沙漠贸易在当时同样重要。故D选项排除。

E选项说尽管孟斐斯附近的山谷受到了挤压,但是当泛滥平原上升的时候尼罗河依然是通讯和旅行的最佳路线。该信息在文中未提及,而且是细节信息,可以直接排除。

F选项说孟斐斯的地理位置除了有利于农业发展之外,它还有利于埃及的统治者控制埃及与近东地区的沙漠贸易。是文章最后一段的概括总结,故F选项正确。

以上就是小编为大家整理了TPO51托福阅读Passage1原文文本+题目+答案解析,大家可以边借助TPO模考软件听音频看看自己哪些地方听不懂,然后来看看原文,同时对练习托福听力精听也是很有帮助的。最后,小站教育编辑预祝大家托福考试能取得理想的成绩。

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