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托福听力重难点剖析

2018年04月16日13:51 来源:互联网
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摘要:在听力中,基础核心词是构成语义的最基本单位,而场景词汇及学科词汇则帮助我们适应听力考试。conversation中没有哪个学生是来找老师喝咖啡的,都是来找老师解决问题的。讲座虽然时间长,但是信息的密度并不是特别大。其实做一个中文的类比,讲座和上课没有什么差别。

在听力中,基础核心词是构成语义的最基本单位,而场景词汇及学科词汇则帮助我们适应听力考试。conversation中没有哪个学生是来找老师喝咖啡的,都是来找老师解决问题的。讲座虽然时间长,但是信息的密度并不是特别大。其实做一个中文的类比,讲座和上课没有什么差别。

托福听力重难点剖析图1

一.语言基础

词汇:基础核心词,场景学科词汇

在听力中,基础核心词是构成语义的最基本单位,而场景词汇及学科词汇则是帮助我们适应听力考试。

例如 Remember, an isotope is a form of a chemical element that has the same number of protons in its atomic nucleus, but a different number of neutrons.

这样的句子在托福听力中经常出现,给出了isotope的定义,首先 “a form of a chemical element”(一种化学元素)这样的表达便是基础核心词,用最基础的词汇对概念进行解释。 “that has the same number of protonsin its atomic nucleus, but a different number of neutrons.” 标红部分则是物理学中最基本的表达,proton 质子atomic nucleus 原子核 neutron 中子。对于某一学科的基础术语、基本概念务必识别。

词汇不过关,声音符号无法识别,听力便无从谈起。

这里给大家推荐两个好用的英语学习软件:Biscuit / Quizlet,这两个软件主要是练习后总结生词使用。生词仅仅总结在本子上对于听力来说是不够的,发音一定要突破。这两个软件可以帮助大家总结出个性化的生词库,而且都会备有发音,方便复习巩固。

【语言基础薄弱—听抄不要停】

第一步:全文听1-2遍

第二步:逐句听写,每句播放3-4遍,若句子较长,可断句,但不可以一个单词一个单词暂停!

第三步:查看全文,生词摘抄在一侧,背诵

第四步:复听,换另外一种颜色的笔,填补空白(第三步摘抄的生词利用第四步巩固)

第五步:查看原文,补全,并进行翻译并跟读

最后一步对于语言基础薄弱的同学来说,一定要认真完成。把补全的听抄稿做成精读材料,跟读材料,练习听力的同时补足语言短板。

在夯实语言基础的过程中提高听力,而不是为了听而听。若忽视语言基础,听力练习就是无源之水。

【基础较好但语音信号不敏感】

第一步:全文听1-2遍,可适当做笔记

第二步:看笔记做全文概括

第三步:逐句听并做跟读,跟读不顺畅的部分进行听写

第四步:总结生词,梳理听写内容

第五步:反复灌耳,并做shadowing练习

*shadowing:重复念出每个所听到的声音,无需等待一个完整的意思单位的结束,速度与音频速度大体保持同步,重点在于加强声音符号的捕捉,将单词与发音的GAP补足。

二.托福听力出题思路

【对话:解决问题】

conversation中,没有哪个学生是来找老师喝咖啡的,都是来找老师解决问题的。

学生的“问题”就是第一个考点,主旨题。

当学生表达个人主观愿望时候:如I need/ I was wondering/ my problem is/ I was hoping的时候,后面的“问题”就是第一道题的答案。 另外一种情况是老师主动问“Can I help you?”,学生的回答同样值得我们注意。 如果学生明确提出自己问题的原因,在笔记上同样需要体现出来。

例如:Student: Hi, I really hope you can help me.

Librarian: That’s why I’m here. What can I do for you?

Student: I’m supposed to do a literature review for my psychology course, but I’m having a hard time finding articles. I don’t even know where to start looking.

老师会根据学生的问题,给出自己的建议/要求,这一部分也是conversation的重要考点。

建议信号词: you should/ suggestion/ why not? / Maybe/ Perhaps…

要求信号词:requirement/you need to…/policy (如学校的要求/借书的要求/课程要求等等)

这两部分是远远不够的,如果学生说:I really need your help. 老师说:ok, it’s fixed. Bye! 那就成了一秒剧终了。

所以,后半部分我们往往会听到一些语气的转变。

如:Student: I was wondering if I can hand in my paper later in this month? My sister is going to get married this weekend and I am her maid of honor.

Professor: Ok, what about handing in you paper as it is on Monday, and I’ll give you one-week extension.

Student: Actually, I haven’t started yet, because two of my sources haven’t arrived.

当我们听到这样的转折时,后面的内容务必要注意,往往会出现考题。 在conversation中,用actually表示转折的概率极高。

在对话的结尾处,往往会出现问题的最后解决方案,对话的结果到底如何,问题如何解决等。 我们会再一次听到教授给出建议或问题的解决办法。

例如:It still sounds like it’s going to take a while though, you know, going through all of that information, all of those sources.

Librarian: Maybe, but you already narrow your search down to articles on Dream Interpretation, so it shouldn’t be too bad. And you probably notice that there’s an abstract or summary at the top of the first page of the article you copied. When you go into the databases and electronic sources, you have the option to display the abstracts on the computer screen, skimming those to decide whether or not you want to read the whole article should cut down some time.

Student: Right, abstracts! They’ll definitely make the project more doable.

如果在对话的末尾处,出现了表示将来的时间,题目中往往会考场在将来的某个时间学生会怎么做。例如:Professor: You know, Mathew, this is just what we’ve been talking about in our class. I’m sure everyone can learn something from your experience. You know, Mathew, I’d love for you to talk about this astronomy unit in class on Wednesday.

Student: Really? Hmm. Cause I don’t really think I’ll have any time to write my paper by then.

Professor: Oh, you won’t need to write anything new just yet. For Wednesday, use your class observation notes and explain the things we’ve discussed today.

Student: Ok, that sounds all right.

【讲座:解释,强调,启示 】

讲座虽然时间长,但是信息的密度并不是特别大。其实做一个中文的类比,讲座和上课没有什么差别,大家上课听老师讲课时的重点内容,就是托福听力lecture中的重点。

课堂重点一: 解释

lecture中大部分都是对某一学科中的概念进行介绍,当教授对某一新term/theor进行解释的时候,一定会考到这一概念。

新概念信号词: is called XXX/ is known as /is referred to as

概念之后一般会添加解释, 例如我们会听到which means, that is to say, in other words

通过这两部,概念的大致意思已经给出,题目中一般会出现这样的提问方式:what is the “概念”

例如:

Well, this pattern is known as Bode’s Law. It isn’t really a scientific law, not in the sense of predicting gravitation mathematically or something, but it’s attempting a pattern in the spacing of the planets, and it was noticed by Bode hundreds of years ago.

What is Bode’s law?

A. A law of gravitation.

B. An estimate of the distance between Mars and Jupiter.

C. A prediction of how many asteroids there are.

D. A pattern in the spacing of the planets.

对于一些重点理论或术语,教授都会给出例子来进行解释,其实上跟老师讲课给例题的作用是一样的,都是为了解释说明某一难点。

例子的信号词比较识别,如for example, for instance, like, let’s say

出现例子,提问方式往往会是why does professor mention sth?

例如:Well, the first is logical exposition. Exposition is whatever background information you have to reveal to the audience, so they will understand what’s going on. Before this time, exposition might have come from actors simply giving speeches. Someone might walk out on the stage and say, and then tell all about the feuding family of Romeo and Juliet. But for the Well Made Play, even the exposition had to be logic, believable. So, for example, you might have two servants gossiping as they are cleaning the house. And one says, oh, what a shame the master’s son is still not married, and the other might mention a rumor about a mysterious gentleman who has just moved into town with his beautiful daughter. These comments are part of the play’s logical exposition.

提问:Why does the professor mention a conversation between two servants?

首先lecture中给我们解释了什么叫做exposition(=background information),并作出exposition必须要logical, believable,随后给出例子进一步解释。

课堂重点二:强调

课堂上老师会对课堂的重点作出明确的指示。

语义上进行强调: this is important/ this is a key element/ crucial

语气上进行强调: remember!

语法上进行强调: do+V/ it is…that

语调上进行强调: stress/ repeat/ slow down

但凡老师强调,笔记上就一定要体现出来,出题几率极大。

另外一种强调形式就是提问。 如果老师在课堂上进行提问,一定是重点,不然老师不会浪费课堂时间。 如果学生在课堂上提问,那么一定是课程难点,学生没听懂,自然值得我们的注意。

例如: Since the northeastern region of North American is interconnected by many streams and waterways, water transportation by vessels like a canoe was most essential.

提问:According to the professor, why was the canoe important to some Native American groups?

例如 Student: Professor Blake, um, did he happen to look at people who sign? I mean deaf people?

Professor: Uh, he did indeed, and to jump ahead, what one finds in deaf individuals who use sign language when they’re given problems of various kinds, they have muscular changes in their hands when they are trying to solve a problem, muscle changes in the hand, just like the muscular changes going on in the throat region for speaking individuals.

提问:Why does the professor say about people who use sign language?

总之,课堂上老师进行强调的部分,一定是重点。

课堂重点三:启示/态度

在lecture的结尾处,往往会出现教授的态度,或者通过课堂内容的讲解,进行延伸(可能是自身经历)从而得出某种启示,这时往往会出题目。

出题形式一: What’s professor’s opinion of sth

出题形式二: Why does author mention sth

例如: … But of course, it’s not as easy as that, and so Frantzen had to paint other people’s portraits at places like art fairs just to make money to buy paint for her more series of art work. No matter what, she never stopped painting. And now, Frantzen is doing extremely well. And her work is being shown all over the country. So I think most of us would be discouraged if we had to face challenges and difficulties like that. But what’s important is that you keep at it that you don’t give up. That’s what is really important to remember.

提问:Why does the professor discuss Frantzen’s difficulties as a young painter?

在lecture最后一部分,通过艺术家的人生经历,教授鼓励我们永不放弃。而且在最后一句话中明确出现强调考点,出现务必马上识别what’s important is that…

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