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托福词汇学习:详解英文版《出师表》你所不会的词汇

2018年01月03日17:27 来源:小站整理
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摘要:对于一个中国考生来说,大家在中学的时假应该都学过一篇文言文叫做《出师表》,近日网上一段英文版的《出师表》的朗诵视频却意外红遍网络。对于这些网络段子,其中有一些值得广大托福考生注意的就是一些托福词汇的使用,学习它们或许对你托福提分有帮助。

无论是一个英文爱好者还是一个正托福备考托福考生来说,深挖一下英文版《出师表》,看看里面有哪符合地方值得我们可以在生活或者托福考试当中值得借鉴的表达呢?下面小编就带大家一起来学习一下吧。

托福词汇学习:详解英文版《出师表》你所不会的词汇图1

《出师表》节选 (译文选自C. H. Brewitt-Taylor的译本Romance of Three Kingdoms)

臣亮言:先帝创业未半而中道崩殂,今天下三分,益州疲弊,此诚危急存亡之秋也。

Permit me to observe: the late emperor was taken from us before he could finish his life's work, the restoration of the Han. Today, the empire is still divided in three, and our very survival is threatened.

(1)observe ,除了我们常见的表示“观察;庆祝”的意思外,它还可以表示“make a remark or comment about it, especially when it is something you have noticed and thought about a lot”,“评论某事,特别是你注意到或是思考很久的事”。

'He is a fine young man,' observed Stephen.

“他是个不错的年轻人,”史蒂芬说。

(2) restoration,“the act of restoring or state of being restored, as to a former or original condition, place, etc”,指“为了回到原来的状态、地点等而进行的恢复的行为”,文中指“恢复汉室”。

然侍卫之臣不懈于内,忠志之士忘身于外者,盖追先帝之殊遇,欲报之于陛下也。

Yet still the officials at court and the soldiers throughout the realm remain loyal to you, your majesty. Because they remember the late emperor, all of them, and they wish to repay his kindness in service to you.

(3) repay,除了“偿还债务”外,还表示“If you repay a favor that someone did for you, you do something for them in return.”,指“回报某人的好意”。

It was very kind. I don't know how I can ever repay you.

这真是太好了。我不知道怎么报答你。

诚宜开张圣听,以光先帝遗德,恢弘志士之气,不宜妄自菲薄,引喻失义,以塞忠谏之路也。

This is the moment to extend your divine influence, to honor the memory of the late Emperor and strengthen the morale of your officers. It is not the time to listen to bad advice, or close your ears to the suggestions of loyal men.

(4) morale “the amount of confidence and cheerfulness that a group of people have”,指“一群人所拥有的信心和乐观的情绪”,也就是我们常说的“士气”。形容士气,我们通常说low/high morale“士气低落/高昂”,“鼓舞士气”我们可以说,boost morale。

Many pilots are suffering from low morale.

许多飞行员士气低落。

(5)close ears to “对……充耳不闻”,相当于turn a deaf ear to。

You can’t just close your ears to their warnings.

你不能对他们的忠告充耳不闻。

……

亲贤臣,远小人,此先汉所以兴隆也;亲小人,远贤臣,此后汉所以倾颓也。

The emperors of the Western Han chose their courtiers wisely, and their dynasty flourished. The emperors of the Eastern Han chose poorly, and they doomed the empire to ruin.

(6) flourish 本意指“植物等茁壮成长”,后引申为“to develop well and be successful”“发展良好或取得成功”,也就是我们常说的“兴盛,繁荣”。

The economy is booming and small businesses are flourishing.

经济开始兴盛,小企业也开始繁荣起来。

(7) doom,“to make someone or something certain to fail, die, be destroyed etc.”“使某人或某事注定失败、死亡或被毁灭”。常用搭配为be doomed to do sth.“注定要做……”

We are all doomed to die in the end.

我们最终注定要死亡。

先帝在时,每与臣论此事,未尝不叹息痛恨于桓、灵也。

Whenever the late Emperor discussed this problem with me, he lamented the failings of Emperors Huan and Ling.

(8) lament “to express feelings of great sadness about something”,“对……感到悲痛”。

The nation lamented the death of its great leader.

整个国家都在为伟大领袖的逝世感到悲痛。

臣本布衣,躬耕于南阳,苟全性命于乱世,不求闻达于诸侯。

I began as a common man, farming in my fields in Nanyang, doing what I could to survive in an age of chaos. I never had any interest in making a name for myself as a noble.

托福词汇学习:详解英文版《出师表》你所不会的词汇图2

(9)make a name,“If you make a name for yourself or make your name as something, you become well-known for that thing.”指“(因……)而出名”。

He made his name with several collections of short stories.

他因几本短篇故事集而名声大噪。

先帝不以臣卑鄙,猥自枉屈,三顾臣于草庐之中,咨臣以当世之事,由是感激,遂许先帝以驱驰。

The late Emperor was not ashamed to visit my cottage and seek my advice. Grateful for his regard, I responded to his appeal and threw myself into his service.

……

先帝知臣谨慎,故临崩寄臣以大事也。

The late Emperor always appreciated my caution and, in his final days, entrusted me with his cause.

(10) entrust,“to make someone responsible for doing something important, or for taking care of someone”,“让某人负责做某件重要的事或负责照顾某人”,即“把某人或某事托付给……”。

When managers entrust employees with important decisions, they signal their respect for those employees.

当经理让员工负责做一些重要决定时,是在表达对他们的尊重。

受命以来,夙夜忧叹,恐托付不效,以伤先帝之明,故五月渡泸,深入不毛。

Since that moment, I have been tormented day and night by the fear that I might let him down. That is why I crossed the Lu river at the height of summer, and entered the wastelands beyond.

今南方已定,兵甲已足,当奖率三军,北定中原,庶竭驽钝,攘除奸凶,兴复汉室,还于旧都。

Now the south has been subdued, and our forces are fully armed. I should lead our soldiers to conquer the northern heartland and attempt to remove the hateful traitors, restore the house of Han, and return it to the former capital.

此臣所以报先帝而忠陛下之职分也。

This is the way I mean to honor my debt to the late Emperor and fulfill my duty to you.

(11)debt除了“债务”以外,也可以表示“人情债,恩情”。,常用的搭配为:in debt(负债), owe a debt to…(欠某人钱/人情)。

We will owe a debt to Sandy that we may not be able to repay.

我们会欠珊迪一份无法偿还的恩情。

(12) fulfill one’s duty ,“完成某人的职责”。fulfill有“完成,实现,达成,促成”的意思,常用的搭配有fulfill a duty/dream/role/fuction/expectation/wish/agreement等。

I expect that he will do his part to fulfil the agreement between us and him.

我认为他一定会尽力和我们达成一致的。

愿陛下托臣以讨贼兴复之效,不效,则治臣之罪,以告先帝之灵。

My only desire is to be permitted to drive out the traitors and restore the Han. If I should let you down, punish my offense and report it to the spirit of the late Emperor.

陛下亦宜自谋,以咨诹善道,察纳雅言。深追先帝遗诏,臣不胜受恩感激。今当远离,临表涕零,不知所言。

Your Majesty, consider your course of action carefully. Seek out good advice, and never forget the late words of the late Emperor. I depart now on a long expedition, and I will be forever grateful if you heed my advice. Blinded by my own tears, I know not what I write.

以上就是小编为大家整理的英文版《出师表》中值得大家借鉴的表达,希望对大家英文水平的提升或者托福考试提分有帮助。最后,希望大家能提升自己的英文水平并取得托福考试的好成绩。

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