【题目】Whether the declining of bison was caused by the European American settlers.
【阅读】About bison, a kind of animal, something like cattle or horse. The passage suggests that the declining bison was due to the European American settlers:
1. When European American cross prairies, they hunted bison as food because there is no food in prairies.
2. They brought cattle and horses, which competed with bison for resources.
3. The evolving technology, especially guns, let hunters kill several bison in a short time.
【听力】The professor contradicts each of these three points:
1. The European American moved from east to west, but the bison decline in the western part of America. The pattern of how bison disappeared gradually was different from that of movement of European American.
2. Bison have double furs covering their bodies and unique head structure, which allow them to live in harsher and colder areas. The areas were unreachable for cattle and horses. How could different spices compete with each other in separate territories?
3. The advanced technology should not be blame worthy for the decreasing bison. The ancient methods are as effectively as guts. Skilled ancient American hunters could kill several bison with short intervals.
2. 2亿年前连flowering plants都没有，怎么会有需要吃花蜜的蜜蜂；
2. 古时候的蜜蜂就一定要吃花蜜吗？他们不能吃nonflowering plants吗？
3. 没有盖子cap可能因为化学原因， 腐蚀掉了什么的，再说为什么要跟modern bee一样呢？
【阅读】3 reasons can explain why toucan evolved a bill.
1. Weapons against predators
2. Color and shape to hide from predator
3. Get rid of excess body heat
【听力】None of the 3 reasons about the bill’s function is reasonable.
1. It cannot function as weapons. It is made of hollow bones filled with air, so it is thin and lightweight or else it cannot fly. If it is used as a weapon, it will be easily damaged in activities like jabbing.
2. They have to call out to each other in order to use the color and shape to blend into surrounding areas. If they do this, they are going to draw attention from predators.
3. Healthy toucan does not use their bills. They need bill to get rid of heat in the daytime but at night when the temperature is lower, they do not. They then need to retain body heat.
【阅读】Heinrich Schliemann discovered a golden mask of warrior king. He claimed that the golden mask is the Mask of Agamemnon. However, the archaeology industry suspects that the golden mask is a fake. There are three reasons for that.
1. Firstly, Schliemann has a reputation of faking his discovery and excavation. He used to buy an antique from a craftsman and claim that the item is from ancient Greek until it was identified a fake. Therefore, the golden mask is very suspicious and Schliemann is incredible.
2. Secondly, some features of the golden mask are different from the authentic golden masks from Ancient Greek. Ancient Greek golden masks have very flat appearance and no pointed hairs. The golden mask of warrior king discovered by Schliemann has very well-defined lips and pointed beard. Therefore, the golden mask is a fake.
3. Thirdly, Schliemann immediately shut down the site where the golden mask is discovered after he found the golden mask. This is a very suspicious behavior. Usually archeologist will continue to excavate the site in the hope of finding more cultural information about the discovery, such as the historical context and identify whose mask it is. More information about the mask could have been discovered to identify the mask, however, Schliemann close the site in a rush, revealing his afraid of being found that the mask is a fake.
【听力】Though many archeologists think the golden mask of warrior king is a fake, but I think that is an authentic item from Ancient Greek. There are three reasons to refute the points in the passage.
1. Firstly, Schliemann did have a reputation of faking discovery and excavation. However, for this mask, it's not easy to fake. The Greek government is familiar with Schliemann's reputation of dishonesty and specifically assigned a supervisor to closely supervise and monitor Schliemann's work of excavation. If Schliemann really cheated on this discovery, it's hard to do so without being caught by the supervisor.
2. Secondly, a golden mask of lion from Ancient Greek, which was proved an authentic antique, was compared with the golden mask of warrior king. The golden lion mask also has three-dimensioned lips and nose, and all pointed hair. All the features are comparable to the golden mask of warrior king.
3. Thirdly, the timing of the site being shut down immediately after the golden mask was discovered can be explained. Schliemann was not a real archeologist but a treasure hunter. It fitted a treasure hunter's habit to close the site immediately after he depleted all the valuable things in the site. Therefore, Schliemann's behavior of shutting down the site is not suspicious.
【阅读】Suggestions to fight White Nose Syndrome (a kind of fungus killed lots of North American bats in the past few years)
1. One suggestion is restricting people to access the caves where bats live, because fungus can be spread cave to cave by riding on people’s clothes.
2. The second suggestion is studying a species of bats that is resistant to fungus.
3. The third suggestion is heating the cave.
【听力】Refute the three explanations mentioned in reading passage.
1. The lecturer refutes the point by saying that people are not main factors to help spread fungus, and it is bats themselves that spread the fungus, because in some caves where people cannot access, there’s fungus still.
2. Resistance is formed during the process of complex biological evolution. And understanding the process needs decades. However, the bats will die out in 10 years if there’s no effective remedy.
3. Bats die because the fungus wakes them up and forces them to face starvation. If the caves are heated, bats will be unable to sleep and thus suffer the starvation. Therefore this suggestion will make the situation worse.